Presentation on theme: "Comprehension Instruction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Comprehension Instruction Comprehension refers to the process by which the reader constructs or assigns meaning by interacting with the text.Readers have a purpose for reading.Readers are actively thinking as they read.Using their experiences and knowledge of the world to make sense of the text.
2 Researchers refer to Metacognition: Metacognition can be defined as “thinking about thinking”.Good readers use metacognitive strategies.Before reading- clarifying the purpose for reading and previewing the text.During reading- monitoring their understanding, adjusting their speed to fit the difficulty of the text, and “fixing-up” any problems they have.After reading- checking their understanding of what they have read.
3 What does scientifically-based research tell us about comprehension instruction? Comprehension strategies are conscious plans:The following six strategies appear to improve text comprehension:Monitoring comprehension- knowing when you understand what you read and when you don’t.Using graphic and semantic organizers- to illustrate concepts and interrelationships, using diagrams and other pictorial devices.
4 Answering questions- encourages readers to Answering questions- encourages readers to understand information in the text.Generating questions- readers asking their own questions improves active processing of the text.Recognizing story structure- readers who can recognize and organize story structure understand and have a better memory of the text.Summarizing- synthesizing important ideas and condensing this information in one’s own words.
5 Direct Instruction Comprehension Strategies: Direct explanation: the teacher explains to students why the strategy helps comprehension and when to apply the strategy.Modeling: the teacher models, or demonstrates how to apply the strategy by “think alouds” while reading the text to students.Guided practice: the teacher guides and assists students as they learn how and when to apply the strategy.Application: the teacher helps students practice the strategy until they can apply it independently.
6 Effective strategy instruction can involve students working together in cooperative learning groups or partners.Students work together to understand and help others learn content-area text and information using:Multiple-strategies or “reciprocal teaching”:Asking questions about the textSummarizing parts of the textClarifying words and sentencesPredicting what might happen*students use these strategies flexibly as needed
7 Using Graphic Organizers: Graphic organizers are an effective way to improve students meaning construction and overall comprehension.Graphic organizers show information gained from a text in a visual format.The process of deciding what information is important and how to construct the graphic organizer is the active involvement students must have to ensure comprehension.
8 The “Oprah Winfrey” Strategy: Several children should read the same book.Teacher plays the role of “Oprah” and interviews children.Questions are formulated to extend the story with children role playing the characters in the text.“Oprah” invite students to appear on the show.Begin with broad questions, then questions that promote thoughts about the characters and deeper involvement.Students can develop their own questions.Students can then become “Oprah”.This activity promotes thinking and involvement for all.
9 When should I teach comprehension strategies? Teachers in the primary grades can begin to build the foundation for reading comprehension strategies.Beginning readers as well as advanced readers can talk about the text, whether reading aloud to students or them reading on their own.Model or “think aloud” about your own thinking and understanding as you read.Lead students in classroom discussions about the meaning of what they are reading.
10 What other comprehension strategies can I teach? Making use of prior knowledge:Conversations about:Text-to-self, text-to-world, and text-to-text connections.Preview the text and ask students what they know about the topic or the author.Discuss the important vocabulary used in the text.Use pictures or diagrams to prepare for the reading.
11 Guided imagery lessons can be integrated within the normal school day. Using mental imagery:Good readers form mental pictures as they read.Younger readers who visualize during reading, understand and remember what they read.Urge students to picture a setting, character, or events described in the text.Guided imagery lessons can be integrated within the normal school day.
12 English Language Learners: ELL students can decode and even become fluent oral readers, but they may not truly comprehend the material, they may not be able to read between the lines, infer meaning, or detect the author’s message.English Language Learners bring different levels of resources to the classroom:English proficiency (Beginning, Intermediate, or Advanced)Ability to read and write in their first language.
13 Beginning Level Proficiency: Speaks and understand little or no English.May produce isolated phrases.Writing is very limited; writes simple sentences with direct assistance.Silent, not active in class discussions.Does not generate a great deal of original language.Uses knowledge comprehension question--who, what, where.English language use is very literal and factual.Vocabulary is focused on the basics.
14 Building Comprehension with Beginning Proficiency Learners: Surround students with real world print.Reading comprehension at this beginning proficiency level is limited to simple phases and sentences.Illustrating text is an especially useful technique.Sketching a summary of the reading with labels for the key points and vocabulary.Shared reading experiences engage students and represent terms and concepts in concrete ways.Foster language development.
15 Intermediate Level Proficiency: Still uses some awkward phrases and sentences.Writing involves translation from home language to English.Beginning to use higher-level language, explaining the how and why.Demonstrates greater regularization with grammar.Generates information and organizes it logically.Demonstrates greater awareness of academic and textbook language.Beginning to understand language that is more abstract.Still experiences some cross language interference.
16 Building Comprehension with Intermediate Proficiency Learners: Despite the progress, extended texts with new vocabulary and content textbooks still present a challenge.Use graphic organizers, KWL charts, and Pair-Share.Provide opportunities for student to negotiate meanings with peers in class discussion and literature circles.Utilize non-fiction texts that are readable and highly visual.Intermediate English language learners demonstrate progress toward the goal of using English for both personal(BICS-basic interpersonal communication skills) and academic purposes (CALP-cognitive academic language).
17 Advanced Level Proficiency: Hypothesizes and engages in critical thinking skills.Able to self-edit oral and written language.Understands more complex forms of the English language.Able to do creative writing projects.Able to engage in expository writing and reading.Students need the “time” and the opportunity to engage in writing and reading activities.Language repertoire is emerging but ESL transitional assistance will support the student in the mainstream classroom.
18 Building Comprehension with Advanced Proficiency Learners: English language learners who have reached advance proficiency levels may be mainstreamed.More complex stories and paragraphs based on previous oral work can aid proficient students in “making the connection”.Even at this level, ELL still struggle with the academic texts required for success in schools.“Fill in” prior knowledge or background knowledge gaps.Emphasize:Pre-reading, during-reading, and post-reading activitiesFormulating questions while reading
19 Special Needs Students: Provide students with a wide variety of reading materials.Provide materials that are interesting and engaging.Plan activities before reading that will help preview the text and activate prior knowledge.Set a purpose for reading and formulating questions.Brainstorm predictions.Explicit modeling of “think aloud” strategy.Make connections between new strategy and concepts.Start reading comprehension strategies at the student’s level of competency.Start from the known plus 1 .
20 Resources:Bos, C.S., & Vaughn, S. (2002). Teaching Students with Learning and Behavior Problems. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Balajthy, E., & Lipa-Wade, S. (2003). Struggling Readers: Assessment and Instruction in Grades K-6. New York: Guilford Press.Catts, H.W., & Kamhi, A.G.. (1999). Language and Reading Disabilities. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Cooper, J.D. (2000). Literacy: Helping Children Construct Meaning. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Cunningham, P., & Allington, R.L. (2003). Classrooms that Work: They can all read and write. New York: Harper Collins.Freeman, Yvonne & Freeman, D. (1994). Between Worlds: Access to Second Language Acquisition. Portsmouth, NH: Heineman.Peregoy, S., & Boyle, O. (2001). Reading, Writing and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for K-12 Teachers. New York: Longman.Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read (2001). The Partnership for Reading: National Institute for Literacy; National Institute for Child Health and Human Development; and the U.S. Department of Education.