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Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Hypertension.

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Presentation on theme: "Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Hypertension."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Hypertension

2 What is Blood Pressure? –Pressure created by the heart as it pumps blood through the arteries and the circulatory system What do Blood Pressure Numbers Mean? –Top number (Systolic)= Pressure while heart is beating –Bottom number (Diastolic)= Pressure while heart is resting between beats Lifestyles, fitness and rehabilitation

3 Hypertension Normal Blood Pressure –Blood Pressure of < 140/ 90 –Blood Pressure of 130 to 139/ 85 to 89 should be closely watched High Blood Pressure –Blood Pressure > 140/ 90 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

4 Hypertension How can I tell if I have High Blood Pressure? –Usually NO SYMPTOMS! –The Silent Killer –May have: Headache Blurry vision Chest Pain Frequent urination at night Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

5 Hypertension Blood Pressure Measurement –Sphygmomanometer –Systolic pressure= pressure when 1 st sound is heard –Diastolic pressure= pressure when last sound is heard Blood Pressure Cuff Size –Small – children and small adults –Average –Large – overweight and large adults Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

6 American Heart Association Recommended Blood Pressure Levels BP Category Systolic (mmHg) Diastolic (mmHg) Follow-up Optimal < 120and < 80Recheck 2 years Normal < 130and < 85Recheck 2 years High Normal 130-139 or 85-89Recheck 1 year Lifestyles, fitness And Rehabilitation

7 American Heart Association Recommended Blood Pressure Levels BP Category Systolic (mmHg) Diastolic (mmHg) Follow-up Stage 1 (mild HTN) 140-159or 90-99 Confirm within months Stage 2 (moderate HTN) 160-179or 100-109 Evaluate within 1 month Stage 3 (severe HTN) 180 or > or 110 or > Evaluate immediately Lifestyles, fitness And Rehabilitation

8 Hypertension What Causes High Blood Pressure? –Cause unknown in 90 to 95% of cases = Primary Hypertension –Secondary Hypertension = 5 to 10% Kidney Abnormalities Narrowing of certain arteries Rare tumors Adrenal gland abnormalities Pregnancy Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

9 Hypertension What Causes High Blood Pressure? –Controllable Risk Factors Increased salt intake Obesity Alcohol Stress Lack of exercise Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

10 Hypertension What Causes High Blood Pressure? –Uncontrollable Risk Factors Heredity Age –Men between age 35 and 50 –Women after menopause Race –1 out of every 3 African Americans –Higher incidence in non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

11 Hypertension Women and High Blood Pressure –Birth Control Pill –Pregnancy –Overweight –After Menopause –African Americans Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

12 Hypertension How does High Blood Pressure develop? –Certain nerve impulses cause arteries to become larger (dilate) or smaller (contract) –If vessels wide open blood flows easily –If vessel narrows pressure inside increases causing hypertension Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

13 Hypertension What does High Blood Pressure do to my Body? –Stroke –Congestive heart failure –Kidney failure –Heart attack –Heart rhythm problems –Aneurysm Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

14 Hypertension What Can I Do? –High blood pressure is a lifelong disease –Blood pressure can be controlled not cured –Controlling blood pressure will reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack, heart failure and kidney disease Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

15 Hypertension What Can I Do? –Loose weight if your overweight –Get regular physical activity –Avoid excessive alcohol –Stop smoking –Manage your stress Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

16 Hypertension What Can I Do? –Decrease salt intake –Eat for heart health –Discuss the use of oral contraceptives with your doctor –Discuss the use of some medications with your doctor Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

17 Hypertension Ten Commandments for Blood Pressure Control –Know your blood pressure Have it checked regularly –Know what your weight should be Keep it at that level or below –Dont use excessive salt in cooking or at meals Avoid salty foods Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation 1 2 3

18 Hypertension Ten Commandments for Blood Pressure Control –Eat a low-fat diet According to AHA regulations –Dont smoke cigarettes Or use tobacco products –Take your medicine exactly as prescribed Dont run out of pills even for a single day Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation 4 5 6

19 Hypertension Ten Commandments for Blood Pressure Control –Keep your appointments with the doctor –Follow your doctors advice about exercise –Make certain family members have their blood pressure checked regularly –Live a normal life in every other way! Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation 7 8 9 10

20 Hypertension Medication for High Blood Pressure –Diuretics Rid the body of excess fluids and salt –Beta-blockers Reduce the heart rate and the work of the heart –Calcium antagonists Reduce heart rate and relax blood vessels Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

21 Hypertension Medication for High Blood Pressure –Angiotensin II receptor blockers(ACE) Interfere with the bodies production of angiotensin, a chemical that causes the arteries to constrict (narrow) –Vasodialators Cause the muscle in the wall of the blood vessels to relax, allowing the vessel to dialate (widen) Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

22 Hypertension Medication for High Blood Pressure –Sympathetic nerve inhibitors Sympathetic nerves go from the brain to all parts of the body, including the arteries Cause arteries to constrict raising blood pressure These drugs reduce blood pressure by inhibiting these nerves from constricting blood vessels Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

23 Hypertension Home Blood Pressure Monitoring –Mercury sphygmomanometer Standard for BP monitoring No calibration May be bulky Need a second person to use machine May be difficult for hearing impaired or patients with arthritis Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

24 Hypertension Home Blood Pressure Monitoring –Aneroid equipment Inexpensive, lightweight and portable Two person operation/need stethoscope Delicate mechanism, easily damaged Needs calibration with mercury sphygmomanometer Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation

25 Hypertension Home Blood Pressure Monitoring –Automatic equipment Contained in one unit Portable with easy-to-read digital display Expensive, fragile Must be calibrated Requires careful cuff placement Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation


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