3 Blood PressureBlood Pressure is a measurement of the force applied to the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body.Systolic pressure is the force in the arteries when the heart beatsDiastolic pressure is the force in the arteries when the heart is at restWritten as Systolic/Diastolic
5 Managing Your Blood Pressure ExerciseReduce Your Salt Intake (Current recommendation is less than 2,400 mg/day)Reduce Your Saturated Fat IntakeLose WeightDASH Diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)Reduce StressQuit SmokingDrink Alcohol in Moderation, if at allMonitor Your Blood Pressure RegularlyStay HydratedIncrease Potassium in Your DietWhen Necessary-Medication
7 CholesterolCholesterol is a soft, fat-like, waxy substance found in the blood stream and in all your body’s cells.
8 LDL Cholesterol A.K.A. “Bad” cholesterol Too much LDL in the blood can slowly build up the inner walls of the arteries that feed the heart and brainAlong with other substances, a plaque is formed, narrowing the arteries & making them inflexibleThis condition is known as Atherosclerosis
9 LDL Cholesterol LDL: Optimal: less than 100 mg/dL Near/Above Optimal: 100 to129 mg/dLBorderline High: 130 to 159 mg/dLHigh: 160 to 189 mg/dLVery High: 190 mg/dL and above
10 HDL Cholesterol A.K.A. “Good” cholesterol Medical experts believe HDL cholesterol tends to carry cholesterol away from the arteries & into the liver where it’s passed from the bodySome experts think HDL removes excess cholesterol from arterial plaque, slowing its buildup
11 HDL Cholesterol HDL: Higher levels are better Low levels (>40 mg/dL for men, >50 mg/dL for women) puts you at higher risk for heart diseaseIn the average man, HDL levels range from mg/dLIn the average woman, HDL levels range from mg/dLAn HDL cholesterol of 60 mg/dL or higher gives some protection against heart disease
12 Triglycerides A form of fat in the body Elevated numbers can be due to overweight/obesity, physical inactivity, cigarette smoking, excess alcohol consumption, diet high in carbohydrates
13 Triglycerides Triglycerides: Normal: less than 150 mg/dL Borderline-High: mg/dLHigh: mg/dLVery High: 500 mg/dL
14 Total Blood (Serum) Cholesterol Levels Desirable—Less than 200mg/dLBorderline-High Risk— mg/dLHigh Risk—240 mg/dL and over
15 Cholesterol Ratio The ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol Obtained by dividing the HDL cholesterol level into the total cholesterolExample: if a person has a total cholesterol of 200 mg/dL and an HDL cholesterol level of 50 mg/dL, the ratio would be 4:1The goal is to keep the ratio below 5:1The optimum ratio is 3.5:1
16 Managing Your Cholesterol Eat a heart-healthy dietGet regular physical activityAvoid tobacco smokeWork with your doctor to create a prevention and/or treatment planMake lifestyle changesTake medication, if necessary (as prescribed by a doctor)Limit alcohol to no more than 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men
18 Blood GlucoseThe term used for the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose, transported via the bloodstream, is the primary source of energy for the body’s cells.
19 Blood Glucose Levels are tightly regulated in the body Normally, the blood glucose level is maintained between 4 and 8 mmol/L (70 to 150 mg/dL in the US)The total amount of glucose circulating in the blood is therefore about 3.3 to 7g (assuming an ordinary adult blood volume of 5 liters)Hypoglycemia is a condition where blood glucose levels drop too lowHyperglycemia is a condition where blood glucose levels remain too high; Long-term hyperglycemia leads to diabetes mellitus, or failure of blood sugar regulation
20 Understanding Your Results There are four primary blood sugar tests, and the results vary depending on the test:Fasting Blood Sugar TestMeasures the blood sugar after fasting for at least 8 hours or overnightLower than 100 mg/dL is Normalmg/dL is Pre-DiabetesType I or Type II diabetes is consistent with results of 126 mg/dL or higher, but generally requires repeated resultsResults of 200 mg/dL or higher are interpreted as having diabetes
21 Understanding Your Results Random Blood Sugar TestMeasures the blood sugar at any point in timeLower than 100 mg/dL is NormalHigher than 100 mg/dL but lower than 199 mg/dL is Pre-Diabetes200 mg/dL or higher suggests Type I or Type II diabetesOral Glucose Tolerance TestMeasures your body’s response to sugarGenerally used with pregnant women to determine if they have gestational diabetesLower than 140 mg/dL is Normal140 mg/dL to 199 mg/dL is considered Pre-Diabetes200 mg/dL or higher is considered Type I or Type II diabetes
22 Understanding Your Results Glycated Hemoglobin (A1C) TestThis test is for diabetics and gauges how well you’re managing your diabetesReflects your average blood sugar level for the past two or three monthsFor people without diabetes, the normal range is 4-6 percentAn A1C level lower than 7 percent is the target for people with diabetesAn A1C level lower than 6 percent is the target for people with diabetes, who are pregnant or have other health concernsAn A1C level higher than 7 percent may indicate a change is needed in your diabetes treatment plan
23 Improving Your Blood Glucose Levels Maintain near-normal levelsHealthier food choicesUse the glycemic index to assist in determining which foods to eatCombining foods with a larger glycemic index with foods of a lower one can help balance out their effect on blood glucose levels30 minutes/day of moderate, physical activity
24 Glycemic IndexThe Glycemic Index ranks carbohydrates according to their effect on blood glucose levelsLow GI: 55 and underMedium GI: 56 to 69High GI: 70 and above
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