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Blood Pressure. Blood Pressure is… The force exerted against blood vessel walls Responsible for the flow of blood The result of: –Pumping action of the.

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Presentation on theme: "Blood Pressure. Blood Pressure is… The force exerted against blood vessel walls Responsible for the flow of blood The result of: –Pumping action of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood Pressure

2 Blood Pressure is… The force exerted against blood vessel walls Responsible for the flow of blood The result of: –Pumping action of the heart –Resistance of the blood vessels –Volume of blood

3 Pumping action of the heart… Systolic phase Systole Ventricles contract Blood Flows out of the heart

4 Pumping action of the heart Diastolic phase Diastole Heart relaxes

5 Blood pressure is recorded… As a fraction ie. 120/80 Systolic pressure is the numerator –The first sound heard Diastolic pressure is the denominator –The change of sound or the last sound heard

6 Blood pressure sounds are… Auscultated through a stethoscope Sounds are correlated with the readings on a sphygmomanometer Blood pressure is recorded in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)

7 Blood Pressure Variations… Determine baseline –From medical record –Systolic palpated pressure Hypertension –High blood pressure Hypotension –Low blood pressure Orthostatic hypotension –Decrease in B/P with position change (from supine to erect)

8 Aneroid Sphygmomanometer Use proper cuff width Width should be approximately 80% of arm circumference Place stethoscope under cuff at the brachial pulse location

9 Mercury sphygmomanometer

10 Korotkoff Sounds Sounds auscultated while assessing BP 5 phases –Phase I: first sound, sharp tapping sound – systolic pressure –Phase II: soft swishing sound –Phase III: rhythmic tapping sound –Phase IV: muffling/fading of tapping sound –Phase V: point at which all sounds disappear – diastolic pressure

11 Trouble-shooting False high reading –Cuff too small –Cuff too loose –Slow cuff deflation –Column or dial not at eye level –Poorly timed (anxiety, exercise, after eating) Take BP first in infant or small child

12 Trouble-shooting False low reading: Incorrect position of arm or leg –Position at heart level Failure to notice auscultatory gap –Sounds fade out for 10 to 15 mm Hg then return Inaudibility of low volume sounds Column or dial not at eye level

13 Normal, Low & High BP Normal blood Pressure: Top number is consistently under 120 and bottom number under 80 Low BP (hypotension): Top number lower than 90 or 25mm Hg lower than usual Pre-high BP (pre-hypertension): Top number is consistently 120 – 139 or the bottom number reads 80 – 89 Stage 1 high BP (hypertension): Top number is consistently 140 – 159 or the bottom number reads 90 – 99 Stage 2 high BP (hypertension): Top number is consistently 160 or over or the bottom number reads 100 or over

14 Blood pressure readings… Use same arm for readings Do not take BP on arm with: –An IV –Paralysis –Injury –A-V shunt –Edema

15 Causes of high BP Modifiable Risk Factors –Lack of exercise –Obesity –Excessive sodium –Tobacco –Alcohol –stress Non-Modifiable Risk factors Age (men over 45, women over 55) Race heredity


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