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Falling in Love with Writing Becoming literate in the modern world is indeed an increasingly complex task. Reading and writing abilities dont just happen.

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Presentation on theme: "Falling in Love with Writing Becoming literate in the modern world is indeed an increasingly complex task. Reading and writing abilities dont just happen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Falling in Love with Writing Becoming literate in the modern world is indeed an increasingly complex task. Reading and writing abilities dont just happen. They are acquired, nurtured and refined through the acts of those who provide appropriate instructional contexts and support. Strickland, D.S.

2 How to Fall in Love Discuss developmental writing as written in the California Preschool Learning Foundations and DRDP © Become familiar with identifying developmental stages of writing Obtain strategies to facilitate development at each stage of writing for all children

3 Its As Easy As Falling in Love Pick up a writing utensil with your non-dominant hand. Turn your body 45 degrees facing away from the table. Lean forward and do not rest back on the chair. Lift one or two feet off of the floor. Hold the pen so that arm, wrist, and hand are NOT touching the table. Close your eyes. Finally, write I LOVE YOU.

4 Its As Easy As Falling in Love Pick up a writing utensil with your non-dominant hand. Turn your body 45 degrees facing away from the table. Lean forward and do not rest back on the chair. Lift one or two feet off of the floor. Hold the pen so that arm, wrist, and hand are NOT touching the table. Close your eyes. Finally, write I LOVE YOU.

5 Muscle Development Components of Writing Posture Core Strength Shoulder Stability Arm Rotation and Wrist Action Grip

6 Sensory Integration Components of Writing Sensory Feedback from Joints and Muscles Tactile Discrimination Visual Perception Skills

7 Sensory Integration Components of Writing Sensory Feedback from Joints and Muscles Tactile Discrimination Visual Perception Skills

8 Sensory Integration Components of Writing Sensory Feedback from Joints and Muscles Tactile Discrimination Visual Perception Skills

9 Children who are taught how to write before they develop the necessary sensorimotor skills may become discouraged and develop poor writing practices that are difficult to remediate later. (Armundson 2005) Reference: California Preschool Learning Foundations, Vol. 2 page 42

10 The California Preschool Learning Foundations Describe how children develop, grow, and learn Define knowledge and skills most children attain during preschool years 10

11 California Preschool Learning Foundations Physical Development 48 Months: Begin to show fine motor manipulative skills using hands and arms such as in-hand manipulation, writing, cutting, and dressing. 60 Months Show increasing fine motor manipulative skills using hands and arms such as in-hand manipulation, writing, cutting and dressing.

12 Starting with Motor Development

13 Strategies for All Children All children need to develop shoulder and trunk muscles to maintain the body in an upright position and in proper alignment for fine motor activities. Examples of shoulder and trunk strength building activities are: Heavy work such as pushing a chair, carrying a water can to the garden, wiping off a table, pushing a laundry basket full of blocks or balls Materials positioned vertically to explore writing and art media at vertical surfaces such as easels, white boards, large pieces of paper on the wall; or by hanging a long vertical strip of paper on the wall and have the child cut a road from top to bottom

14 Strategies for Children with Disabilities Accommodations might include providing the following: Additional LARGE motor opportunities Tilted surfaces Overheads and plastic letters Smart boards

15 Strategies for All Children All children need to develop hand strength for fine motor activities such as fastening snaps on clothing, opening food, taking lids off markers, and writing! To build hand strength: Provide resistive activities such as rolling clay to make snakes, carrying buckets of water to the sandbox,, tearing, scrunching or folding paper, hanging up clothes or paintings with clothes pins. Encourage children to use resistive tools such as rolling pins to roll out play dough, single hole punches to punch holes for lacing, shovels to dig with.

16 Strategies for Children with Disabilities Accommodations might include providing the following: Fine motor opportunities and options: Adapters on writing instruments Adaptive scissors Anchoring materials such as rubber mats or clip boards

17 Strategies for All Children Provide opportunities to write with fingers in addition to writing with tools: Shaving cream Sand trays or sand box Mud Magic screens

18 Supporting Children with Disabilities: Talk with families and special education providers to learn about strategies for individual children.

19 19 Preschool Curriculum Framework Provides Ideas for: Environments Building on childrens play Materials Teacher-guided learning activities 2010 © California Department of Education, CPIN Project

20 The Curriculum Framework Strategies Are: Developmentally appropriate Reflective of thoughtful observation and intentional planning Individually and culturally meaningful Inclusive of children with disabilities and other special needs 20

21 The DRDP-PS © (2010) Assess childrens growth and development Assists in curriculum planning Guides continuous program improvement

22 Learning to write involves cognitive, social and physical development. Preschool Learning Foundations, page 54.

23 California Infant/Toddler Foundations Motor and Perceptual Development 18 months Children are able to hold small objects in one hand and sometimes use both hands together to manipulate objects. 36 months Children coordinate the fine movements of the fingers, Wrists, and hands to skillfully manipulate a wide range of objects and materials in intricate ways. Children often use one hand to stabilize an object while manipulating it.

24 California Preschool Learning Foundations: Language and Literacy 48 months: Experiment with grasp and body position using a variety of drawing or writing tools Write using scribbles that are different from pictures Write marks to represent own name 60 months Adjust grasp and body position for increased control in drawing and writing Write letters or letter like shapes to represent words or ideas Write first name nearly correct

25 California Preschool Learning Foundations English Language Development Beginning: Begin to understand that writing can be used to communicate Begin to demonstrate an awareness that writing can be in the home language or English Write marks to represent their own name in a way that may resemble how it is written in the home language Middle: Begin to understand that what is said in the home language or English can be written down and read by others Begin to use marks or symbols to represent spoken language in the home language or English Attempt to copy their own name in English or in the writing system of their home language

26 California Preschool Learning Foundations English Language Development Later: Develop an increasing understanding that what is said in English can be written down and read by others. Continue to develop writing by using letter-like marks to represent their ideas in English Write their first name on their own in English nearly correctly, using letters of the English alphabet to accurately represent pronunciation in their home language.

27 Developmental Stages of Writing

28 Awareness, Exploration, or Role Play Writing Children are beginning to come to terms with a new aspect of language, that of written symbols. They experiment with marks on paper with the intention of communicating a message or emulating adult writing.

29 Stage 1 Phase 1-DRAWING Children use drawing to stand for writing. Children may believe that drawings have a message. Children read their drawings as if there were writing on them.

30 ABC Is it a picture or is it writing?

31 At the beginning of the first stage of writing we see no difference between the marks a child uses to draw pictures and those that are intended to say something. We know the childs intention only by listening or by watching the context in which the child makes the marks. For Example: Phone message Label on a block building Signature

32 Stage 1 Phase 2- SCRIBBLING Childrens scribbles are intended as writing. The scribbling resembles writing. Children begin to hold and use writing tools like an adult.

33 Stage 1- Awareness, Exploration, or Role Playing An example of scribbling and drawing together

34 Emergent or Experimental Writing Children are aware that speech can be written down and that written messages remain constant. They understand the left to right organization of print and experiment with writing letters and words.

35 Stage 2 Phase 1- Early Emergent Letter-like forms (mock letters). Children become aware of the different shapes of symbols that make up the words in a line of print (lines, zigzags, loops). Shapes in writing actually resemble letters but are not actually letters. Although poorly formed, many letter-like marks are unique creations.

36 Moving from mock letters to real letters Moving from random letters to a letter string Writing the same letters in many ways Include scribbles and mock letters in writing Understanding, not using, alphabetic principle; i.e., must first select letters to form a word Understanding directionality, but not always using depending on space Stage 2 Phase 2- Emergent/ Experimental

37 Transitional or Early Writing Children write about topics that are personally significant. They are beginning to consider audience needs. They begin to have a more formal sense of print conventions, letters, words and sentences but may only be able to deal with one or two elements of writing at one time. The end of this stage usually happens in kindergarten and first grade.

38 Conventional Writing Children are becoming familiar with most aspects of the writing process and are able to select forms to suit different purposes. Their control of structure, punctuation, and spelling may vary according to the complexity of the writing task.

39 Proficient Writing Writers have developed a personal style of writing and are able to manipulate forms of writing to suit their purposes. They have control over spelling and punctuation. They choose from a large vocabulary and writing is cohesive, coherent and satisfying.

40 Framework and the DRDP © Developmental Levels - Writing

41 Framework and the DRDP © Developmental Levels Match the four Framework Developmental Level cards to the Stages of Writing cards Hint: The Framework Developmental Level cards may address more than one stage of writing

42 What Did You Find Out? Go to the table nearby and discuss how your group matched the DRDP © developmental levels to the writing levels.

43 Falling in Love through the Framework The framework has many strategies for supporting children as they develop through these stages.

44 Falling in Love with Writing With a partner, select and work on one section of the handout.

45 Reflecting on Love Revisit the handout, Finding the Writing Love in the Framework Does your action plan include a strategy that would specifically benefit a child in your classroom with special needs?

46 Considerations for Children with Disabilities Although accommodations for individual children are specified in the IEP, there are many general strategies that are helpful for all children, including children with disabilities.

47 Strategies for All Children Set up a well stocked writing area-an area specifically devoted to writing increases childrens engagement and interest in writing. White and colored paper in several sizes Writing tools such as markers, crayons, pens and pencils Writing tools can be in variety of sizes-jumbo crayons, fat pencils, regular pencils, skinny markers-different sizes will be more comfortable for different children

48 Strategies for All Children Provide new materials frequently. Get creative. Some ideas are: Envelopes Card stock Stationary Post cards Post-its and file cards Glitter and gel pens

49 Strategies for Children with Disabilities Some accommodations might include providing the following: A wide variety of writing surfaces: Sand paper Textured paper Different weights of paper may work better for some children Different lighting features: Book lights near the writing surface Direct sunlight Low lighting

50 Strategies for All Children Use technology: Computers-children enjoy finding letters and typing them Overheads and overhead markers or plastic letters Electronic writing toys

51 Strategies for Children with Disabilities Some accommodations might include providing the following: Assistive technology Oversize computer keyboards Voice-to-print adapters Cassette recorders Braille writers

52 Supporting English Learners

53 When teaching children for whom English is a second language it is important to recognize that: Children need to have the freedom to use home languages and to code-switch when necessary. Text learning needs to be supported through oral language and social interaction. Context and purpose of each activity needs to make sense to the learner. It may be difficult to assess childrens real achievements and the active involvement of parents will make a great deal of difference.

54 Teachers need to be sensitive to the unique characteristics of a childs home language as they begin to learn to explore writing. Is the childs home language alphabetic or logographic? Children typically progress through several phases when developing the ability to hear phonemes in words. In English, both consonants and long vowel phonemes are more easily heard as distinct sounds in words than are short vowels.

55 Stage 2 Examples From an English- speaking child: ALPHABETIC From a Chinese- speaking child: LOGOGRAPHIC

56 Children who speak other languages may display a different developmental progression: Children who are using invented spelling in English tend to use more consonants than vowels; in English, consonant sounds are more prominent and easier to hear. In Spanish there is more of a mixing of consonants and vowels.

57 Additional Considerations for Second Language Learners Make sure classroom contains a variety of books, pictures, and print that affirm childrens family experiences and their cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Use multimedia such as videos, pictures, and concrete objects to create connections with vocabulary words and print. Anticipate words that might be unfamiliar and give explicit meaning to them. Make use of the excellent language learning that occurs among children by supporting play and small-group activities.

58 Reflecting on Love Again Revisit the handout, Finding the Writing love in the Framework Does your action plan include a strategy that would specifically benefit a child learning English as a second language Use the information on the previous five slides to complete part 4 of the worksheet.

59 Environments Must Support Writing

60 Creating Invitations to Write through the Environment Use the following section from the curriculum framework as a resource: L & L Writing section pages 158-166 ELD Writing section pages 219-223 Notice chart paper with environment areas around the room. With table group choose one area to begin. Record ideas from the framework, as well as each other on the chart paper. Participants have 5 minutes at each environment area. Rotate when the bell rings. At the end, participants may roam the room and record favorite ideas on personal handout.

61

62 Environments for Writing Every center should support a connection to literacy and provide opportunities for children to read and write. Every center should have a place where children can record what they are doing, or observing. Every center should have a posted written description of the center labeling either the title, activities, or theme of the center.

63 Reflection What was the most exciting experience today? What was the most interesting experience today? What is something you learned or re-learned today? What new idea for your classroom did you have today?

64 References 1. California Preschool Learning Foundations 2. California Preschool Learning Framework 3. Edited by Lesley Mandel Morrow, Linda B. Gambrell, and Michael Pressley (1999). Best Practices in Literacy Instruction. New York: Guilford Press. 4. Susan B. Neuman, Carol Copple, and Sue Bredekamp (1998). Learning to Read and Write. Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. 5. Judith A. Schickedanz (1999). Much More than the ABCs. The Early Stages of Reading and Writing. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. 6. Judith A. Schickedanz and Renee M. Casbergue (2004). Writing in Preschool. Learning to Orchestrate Meaning and Marks. Newark, DE: International Reading Association 7. Derry Koralek (2003). Spotlight on Young Children and Language. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

65 Optional Activities Slides The following slides provide a couple of options.

66 Ways to Encourage Writing List ideas that encourage writing For example: Adult writes a list of childrens favorite books or making tickets for a play, etc.

67 Creating Invitations through the Daily Routine Read the section of the framework for the strand you are presenting. Work in table group to complete the parts of the daily routine matrix or hang chart paper with parts of the daily routine.

68 Creating Invitations through the Daily Routine Use the following section from the curriculum framework as a resource: L & L Writing section pages 158-166 ELD Writing section pages 219-223 Notice the chart paper with parts of the daily routine around the room. With table group choose one area to begin. Record ideas from the framework on the chart paper. You will have 5 min. at each chart. Rotate at the signal. At the end, participants have 5 minutes to roam the room and record favorite ideas on handout.

69 Creating Invitations through the Daily Routine


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