2Outcomes Become familiar with the language and literacy foundations with a focus on the comprehension and analysis of age-appropriate text substrand.framework strategies with a focus on the comprehension and analysis of age- appropriate text substrand.Identify the operations by which children demonstrate comprehension and analysis of age-appropriate text.Consider strategies for fostering comprehension and analysis of age-appropriate text in all children.These are the outcomes for today.Consider posting the outcomes on a chart for reference while going through each agenda item.
4Two California Department of Education Resources We will be using two CDD resources during this session.(Click to reveal Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1)This is the Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1 (PLF). The foundations describe how children develop, grow, and learn. The preschool foundations are for all children and reflect the diversity found in California.(Click to reveal Preschool Curriculum Framework, Volume 1)This is the Preschool Curriculum Framework, Volume 1 (PCF). This framework presents strategies and information to help teachers enrich learning and development opportunities for all of California’s preschool children.4
5Domain Organization Reading Language and Literacy Reading Concepts about PrintPhonological AwarenessAlphabetic and Word/Print RecognitionComprehension and Analysis of Age-Appropriate TextLiteracy Interest and ResponseWritingWriting StrategiesDomain OrganizationLanguage and LiteracyReadingComprehension and Analysis of Age Appropriate TextTurn to page 53 in the PLF and read the section titled comprehension and analysis of age-appropriate text.
6Using Comprehension Skills Look at the pictures and short stories on your table with your tablemates.When was the last time you had a similar experience?What comprehension and analysis skills did you use?What experiences do you remember as a small child that may have laid the groundwork for those skills?Ice Breaker-Using Comprehension SkillsINTENT: The intent of this activity is to warm-up the participants and facilitate their reflection on a personal experience that involved reading comprehension skills.OUTCOMES: Participants will discuss the skills involved in reading comprehension. Participants will reflect on daily activities that involve reading comprehension.MATERIALS REQUIRED: Reading picture/story cardsTIME: 10 minutesPROCESS: Invite groups to explore the reading picture/story cards on the table. Ask participants to choose the card that they most relate to. It can be the picture they like best, or the picture that depicts the reading experience they have most frequently. Looking at the picture/story cards that they chose, have participants use the following questions to prompt discussion regarding reading comprehension within their table groups (allow 5 minutes for discussion): Is comprehension taking place in the picture? If so, how is it occurring, and what skills are being used? When was the last time you had a similar experience? What comprehension and analysis skills did you use? What experiences do you remember as a small child that may have laid the groundwork for those skills? Bring participants back together as a large group and debrief by holding up each picture/story card and asking participants to stand up when they see the card they chose. The following are possible questions and prompts to use during the debriefing as presenters best see fit: Which cards are more popular? Why might that be? Which specific comprehension skills are used frequently? What emotions correlate to the pictures? What personal meaning do some of these pictures have?OPTIONS: Instead of allowing participants to choose the picture/story card they most connect with, pass out the cards and tell them to find a partner with the same card. Then follow the directions above. Post pictures/story cards around the room on chart paper and have participants walk around the room, choosing which card they want to stand by. Then complete the activity with the groups that have formed around the room.
7Comprehension and Analysis of Age-Appropriate Text Foundations Demonstrate knowledge of familiar story details (e.g., characters, settings, events, and event sequences).PCF, Vol. 1, p. 146Demonstrate and use knowledge from information texts (e.g., label and describe an animal, take on the role of astronaut, explain what a seed needs to grow). PCF, Vol. 1, p. 146
8A Deeper Look at the Foundations Ask participants to find this page in the PLF.
11DRDP-2010 Measure 13Use the DRDP 2010 measures to better understand the “series of stages that ultimately lead to their making sense of stories and the world around them”. Slide 10 & PLF, Vol. 1, p. 53You may choose to pose the following questions:-What examples that you read on this measure do you also see in your classroom?-Think about the kind of teacher facilitation that has occurred when you observe these examples?-Where do you see these examples occuring?
12DRDP 2010 Measure 18 You may choose to pose the following questions: Use the DRDP 2010 measures to better understand the “series of stages that ultimately lead to their making sense of stories and the world around them”. Slide 10 & PLF, Vol. 1, p. 53You may choose to pose the following questions:-What examples that you read on this measure do you also see in your classroom?-Where do you see these examples occurring?-Are there specific environment and materials that support these examples happening?
13ELD Measure 23 You may choose to pose the following questions: -What examples that you read on this measure do you also see in your classroom?-What might this information tell you about how to support the child’s development of comprehension?The next slides discuss facets of intentionality and planning to facilitate student development of comprehension skills. As we think about the teachers role reflect back on this slide and children in your class that reflect various places in development. This will help you consider the information in the context of your classroom and the specific needs of your children.
20VIDEOPlay Shark Movie Clip and discuss examples of interaction and strategy on the previous slide:Be prepared to guide and scaffold children’s language and thinking as they respond in any a language. PCF, Vol. 1, p. 149You may want to ask:-what did you see?-what examples of guiding and scaffolding did you see?-of these was there one of particular interest?-have you done something similar?-would you like to expand your reading time in a similar way?-how might you plan for that type of activity?20
21Being Prepared as a Teacher Understand StorylineCharactersPlotTransitionsConnect to interests of childrenPlan an introductionIdentify possible points of confusionProvide promptsProvide visual and tactile cuesSee CELL reviews Children’s Story Retelling as a Literacy and Language Enhancement Strategy (Dunst, Simkus, and Hamby, Center for Early Literacy Learning 2012, Volume 5, Number 2).
22Being Prepared as a Teacher Find the Evidence:Read page 147 in the PCF.Working with your tablemates, look for evidence in the vignette that the teacher was prepared.Finding the EvidenceINTENT: The intent of this activity is to provide an opportunity for teachers to become familiar with one way to use vignettes to enhancing their teaching.OUTCOMES: Participants will read a vignette from the Preschool Curriculum Framework (PCF) and analyze that information in relation to their personal planning practices.MATERIALS REQUIRED: PCF, Vol. 1, p Sticky notes. Sticky Wall or Finding the Evidence in Planning handout.TIME: 15 minutesPROCESS: Guide participants to read page 147 in the PCF. Ask participants to identify how the teacher planned ahead to increase story comprehension, jotting down the methods the teacher utilized on the sticky notes. Tell them their notes will be shared with the group. Allow 10 minutes for reading and note taking. After participants have finished, have them place their notes on the Finding the Evidence in Planning handout or the Sticky Wall. Debrief: Guide participant’s attention to the ways the teacher planned for story comprehension. Have participants identify a planning method that they already use to increase story comprehension. Have participants identify a planning method they will implement to increase story comprehension.OPTIONS: If presenters are using a Sticky Wall, debriefing can be done as one large group or with individual table groups. The columns on the Finding the Evidence in Planning handout can be separated on chart paper and hung around the room so that participants can walk around to place their sticky notes.
23Interaction and Strategy Read a story several times over a few days.PCF, Vol. 1, p. 148Read a story several times over a few days.Multiple readings help preschool children understand a story better. During a second reading of a book with a small group of children, teachers can prompt children’s thinking and verbal engagement by asking some questions.For example, during a second reading of Corduroy, a teacher might ask on the first page, “So, where does Corduroy live?” A child might say “in there” or “at a store.” The teacher expands the child’s response (e.g., “Yes, Corduroy lives in the toy department of a big store”) and follows by encouraging the child to say, “toy department.”On the page where Corduroy comments about his lost button and his plans to find it, the teacher might ask, ”What is Corduroy thinking here? What does he plan to do?” A child might say, “The but-ton.” The teacher expands what the child said: “Yes, you are right. Corduroy says, ‘Tonight, I’ll go and see if I can find it.’” Then, before turning to the next page, the teacher might ask, “What happens next?” With this approach, a teacher monitors a child’s understanding of a story, helps a child understand more of the story’s parts, and expands the child’s expressive language, all of which help a child learn to retell a story on his or her own.PCF, Vol. 1, p. 148
29Video ReflectionWhat Preschool to the Rescue video clip and discuss how the teacher must have planned for that activity.Do you see examples of scaffolding for specific students in this activity?Think back to the continuum of development we discussed with the DRDP measures; would any of the strategies in the video be beneficial to one of the specific children you thought about?
31Literacy Bill of Rights Guide participants to read handout 4, the Literacy Bill of Rights.Comprehension is an integral component of these rights. What will you do to ensure these rights are had by your children?“A Literacy Bill of Rights”(Yoder, Erickson & Koppenhaver)All persons, regardless of the extent or severity of their disabilities, have a basic right to use print. Beyond this general right, there are certain literacy rights that should be assured for all persons. These basic rights are:The right to an opportunity to learn to read and write. Opportunity involves engagement in active participation in tasks performed with high success.The right to have accessible, clear, meaningful, culturally and linguistically appropriate texts at all times. Texts, broadly defined, range from picture books to newspapers to novels, cereal boxes and electronic documents.The right to interact with others while reading, writing, or listening to a text. Interaction involves questions, comments, discussions, and other communications about or related to the text.The right to life choices made available through reading and writing competencies. Life choices include, but are not limited to, employment and employment changes, independence, community participation, and self-advocacy.The right to lifelong education opportunities incorporating literacy instruction and use. Literacy educational opportunities, regardless of when they are provided, have potential to provide power that cannot be taken away.The right to have teachers and other service providers who are knowledgeable about literacy instruction methods and principles. Methods include but are not limited to instruction, assessment, and technologies required to make literacy accessible to individuals with disabilities. Principles include, but are not limited to, the beliefs that literacy is learned across places and time, and no person is too disabled to benefit from literacy learning opportunities.The right to live and learn in environments that provide varied models of print use. Models are demonstrations of purposeful print use such as reading a recipe, paying bills, sharing a joke, or writing a letter.The right to live and learn in environments that maintain the expectations and attitudes that all individuals are literacy learners.Makin, Laurie, PhD, and Criss Jones Diaz, eds. Literacies in Early Childhood: Changing Views, Challenging Practice. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Company, 2002.