2 FormThis tense is formed with had been + the present participle. It is the same for all persons:I had / I'd been working We had been workingYou had/you'd been working You had been workingHe/she /it had been working They had been working
3 Negative: They had not/hadn't been working Interrogative: Had you been working?Negative interrogative: had you not/hadn't you been working?
4 Duration before something in the past USEDuration before something in the pastX>>>>>>>TS_____I____________past present futureWe use the past perfect continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past.
5 They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived. Time expressions such as “for five minutes” and “for two weeks” can be used with both Present Perfect Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous.However, with Past Perfect Continuous the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past.They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.
6 Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work. She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work.
7 Cause of something in the past Using the past perfect continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect.Jason was tired because he had been jogging.Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending classes.
8 Past Continuous vs. Past Perfect Continuous If you do not include a duration such as for five minutes, for two weeks or since Friday, many speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the Past Perfect Continuous.Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Past Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration before something in the past.
9 He was tired because he was exercising so hard He was tired because he was exercising so hard. (past continuous=he was tired because he was exercising at that exact moment)He was tired because he had been exercising so hard. (past perfect continuous=he was tired because he had been exercising over a period of time. It is possible that he was still exercising at that moment OR that he had just finished)
10 Past Perfect Simple vs. Past Perfect Continuous There is a difference between a single action in the Past Perfect Simple and an action in the Past Perfect Continuous:By six o'clock he had repaired the engine. (this job had been completed)He had been repairing the engine tells us how he had spent the previous hour/half hour etc. It doesn't tell us whether or not the job was completed.
11 He had been painting the door. (The paint was probably still wet) Another difference is that an action in the Past perfect Continuous continues up to, or beyond, the time of speaking in the past. An action in the Past Perfect Simple may occur shortly before the time of speaking, but there could be quite a long interval between them:He had been painting the door. (The paint was probably still wet)He had painted the door. (Perhaps recently, perhaps some time ago)
12 REMEMBER- No stative verbs! Stative verbs are not used in any continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Past Perfect.The motorcycle had been belonging to George for years before Tina bought it. WRONGThe motorcycle had belonged to George for years before Tina bought it. CORRECT
13 Complete the sentences with the Past Perfect Continuous EXERCISESComplete the sentences with the Past Perfect Continuous1)I _____(work) all day, so I didn't want to go out.2) She _____ (sleep) for 10 hours when I woke her.3) They _____ (live) in Beijing for 3 years when he lost his job.4) When we met, you ______ (work) in that company for 6 months.
14 5) He was red in his face because he ____ (run). 6) She _____ (not/work) but she was tired anyway.7) It (not/rain)______ long when I got home.8) I caught a cold because I (not/eat)______ properly.9) There was water everywhere, ___________ (what/ the children/do)?10) ______ (why/you/study) so hard?11) _______ (how long/we/wait) when the bus finally arrived?