Presentation on theme: "THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE. Revision of the Present Perfect Simple: Formed with the present tense of have + the past participle: I have worked,"— Presentation transcript:
THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Revision of the Present Perfect Simple: Formed with the present tense of have + the past participle: I have worked, he has worked etc. Use: mixture of present and past. It always implies a strong connection with the present and is mainly used in conversations, letters, newspapers and TV and radio reports. Used for past actions whose time is not definite: I have read the instructions but I don't understand them. (time not given, so present perfect) but I read the instructions last night. (time given, so simple past)
THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE FORM This tense is formed by the present perfect of the verb to be (have been) + the present participle (the -ing form of the verb): I have been working We have been working You have been working you have been working He/she/it has been working they have been working
Negative: I have not/ haven't been working etc. Interrogative: Have I been working? etc. Negative interrogative: Have I not/ Haven't I been working? etc.
USE This tense is used for an action which began in the past and is still continuing: I o TS (time of speaking) I have been waiting for an hour and he still hasn't turned up. Or has only just finished: I o TS I'm so sorry I'm late. Have you been waiting long?
Comparison of the present perfect simple and continuous Ongoing activities The present perfect continuous is used with for, since, How long...? and other expressions of duration (e.g. all day), to talk about activities starting in the past and still happening now. The activity may have been going on continuously or repeated several times: They have been producing cars here for ten years. (They started producing cars ten years ago. They are still producing cars)
I have been trying to ring them all day. (I started trying to ring them this morning. I am still trying to ring them) However, we normally use the present perfect simple with stative verbs (be, believe, know, hear, smell, taste, like, etc) or for situations we consider permanent: Ken has been in London since 9 o'clock this morning. (not: *has been being...) I have lived in London all my life. (not: *have been living...)
Finished and unfinished activities A repeated action in the simple present perfect can sometimes be expressed as a continuous action by the present perfect continuous: I've written six letters since breakfast. (present perfect simple) I've been writing letters since breakfast. (present perfect continuous)
The present perfect continuous expresses an action which is apparently uninterrupted; we do not use it when we mention the number of times a thing has been done or the number of things that have been done.In this case we use the present perfect simple. I have been knocking. I don't think anybody's in. I have knocked five times. I don't think anybody's in.
There is a difference between a single action in the present perfect simple and an action in the present perfect continuous: I've polished the car. (the job is finished) I've been polishing the car (this is how I've spent the last hour'. It does not necessarily mean that the job is completed.)
A single action in the present perfect continuous continues up to the time of speaking, or nearly up to this time: He's been taking photos. (he's probably still carrying his camera) but He has taken photos. (this action may or may not be very recent)
Negatives In the negative, the present perfect simple focuses on the amount of time that has passes since something happened. The present perfect continuous focuses on the verb itself: I haven't had a holiday for two years. (The last time was two years ago) I haven't been feeling well recently. (this has been continuing for days )
Recently finished activities We can use the present perfect continuous to talk about an activity that has just finished. Often there is something you can see that shows the activity has just finished. Look – the ground is wet. It has been raining.
Exercises: Fill in the correct form (present perfect simple or continuous): 1. I (practice) _____________the piano for 30 minutes. 2. Bob (run) ____________________ 10 km. 3. The children (be) ____________on holiday for six days. 4. The dog (bark) _________ since midnight. 5. We (miss) ___________ the bus twice this week.
Fill in the correct form (present perfect simple or continuous): 1. How long (wait/you)____________ for us? 2. How many times (tell/I)_________ you? 3. How often (clean/you) ___________ the windows this year? 4. How many months (take/you)__________ piano lessons? 5. (Stay/you/ever) ______________ in a castle?
Fill in the correct form: 1. Tom: Hi Ana. I (try)____ to ring you several timestoday. Where(you/be)_________? 2. Ana: I (be) ______ at home all the time. But I (clean)_______ the house all day, so maybe I didn't hear the phone ring. 3. Tom:(you/clean)_______ everything now? 4. Ana: No, not yet. I (tidy/not) ______ up the kitchen yet. But why are you here? 5. Tom: Don't you remember? Jane (invite)______ us to her birthday party and we buy/not_____ a present for her yet.
6. Ana: Oh, that's right. (you/find out/already)_______ what she wants? 7. Tom: Well, she (learn)________ Spanish for a year and wants to spend her next holiday in Mexico. Maybe we could get her a guide book. 8. Ana: That's a good idea. There's a good bookshop in the big shopping centre. I (see)______ some nice books about Mexico there recently.