2The role of the military within the EU Comprehensive Approach to Crisis Management Defence Attaché brief29 March 2012EU MILITARY STAFFDirector General EUMSLtGen Ton van OSCH
3The EU is a complex institution As you have probably noticed the EU is a comprehensive Union.It has several institutions with different mandates. In some areas there are overlapping responsibilities and we are working hard to adapt to the new setting that the Lisbon treaty brings and to harmonise the inter institutional work.33
4CSDP in the Lisbon Treaty Article 42 (ex Article 17 TEU)The common security and defence policy shall be an integral part of the common foreign and security policy. It shall provide the Union with an operational capacity drawing on civilian and military assets. The Union may use them on missions outside the Union for peace-keeping, conflict prevention and strengthening international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. The performance of these tasks shall be undertaken using capabilities provided by the Member States.2. The common security and defence policy shall include the progressive framing of a common Union defence policy. This will lead to a common defence, when the European Council, acting unanimously, so decides. It shall in that case recommend to the Member States the adoption of such a decision in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements.The Lisbon Treaty clearly underlines the Comprehensive ambitions for the conduct of CSDP.The Lisbon treaty brings clear guidance when it comes to CSDP. It also brings a rather ambitious goal for the development of the defence policy.The Treaty is also introducing some areas that are quite challenging in their nature. I am here talking about, e.g. The Solidarity Clause that deals with, on it´s request, supporting an EU member suffering from the consequences of a natural or man made disaster or a Terrorist attack.
5CSDP Vision = Complex, dynamic, interrelated threats + uniqueness of each crisis/regionCombined & tailored response:diplomacy, trade, development,humanitarian aid+Mixture of instruments: Police, judicial, military, economic instrumentsIn the European Security Strategy, it is also stated that the EU should be more active, more capable and work in a more coherent way.What makes the EU unique, is its possibility to act in a complex, dynamic, interrelated crisis, with a combined and tailored comprehensive response, using the whole range of both military and civilian assets and capabilities. This is probably the most important slide. It shows that every crisis demands a different response, with different tools out of our toolbox.The EU is not a unilateral military organisation, but a multilateral organisation capable of a comprehensive approach, of which the military component is just one part. The multilateralism is one of the points which is emphasised by the EUI think it’s a good and clear story. As we know, most of the crisis can not be solved with military only. To be more explicit; the problem of piracy off the coast of Somalia cannot be solved at sea. That is why EU now is launching a truly comprehensive effort to this region. In addition to the already existing Operation ATALANTA and the EU Training Mission in Somalia, other activities will be amended and brought under the same overarching operational umbrella. I will come back to it later in my briefing.=Comprehensive approachto prevent / cease conflicts and(re)build peaceful and stable societies5
6CSDP Relative Utility NATO Mil Cumulative EU Civ-Mil utility EU Civ EU MilPEACECRISISWARDomesticDisasterReliefCivilSupportEnvironmental/ResourceProtectionArmsControlSecurityAssistanceHumanitarianPeaceBuildingKeepingEnforcementNationShow ofForceCounterNarcoticsPiracySanctionsTerrorismInsurgencyLimitedConventionalConflictMajorTheatreWarStrategicLevelNon-CombatantEvacuationsPolitical/EconomicConsequenceManagementOrganisedCrimeClimateChangePeacetimeLet us try to envisage an idea of the relative utility of the different EU instruments depending on in what type of context they are in, but also the profile of the EU in comparison with a military organisation such as NATO.As you can see the dotted line represents the CSDP over the conflict spectrum.The red line describes now the utility of military is increasing the closer to a « hard conflict » we get and the reverse with civilian assets. As you can see NATO has a much more significant role to play in a more war type situation.The interesting part comes in the synergies we potentially can achieve with a comprehensive approach but it also shows the difference between NATO and the EU CSDP. Of course there are no such things as the truth in a slide like this it only represents one idea of the relative utility.
7EEAS – Nature and scope Autonomous body of the European Union Authority of the High RepresentativeSupport StaffA few words on the EEAS which is the organisation in which the CSDP structures are hosted. The core of the EEAS is off course its regional directorates, like any Foreign ministry or State department.Under the Crisis management structures you will find the preconditions for a Comprehensive Approach to external crisis. These are:the European Union Military Staff (EUMS),the Civil OHQ: the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC), andthe (civil) Crisis Management and Planning Directorate (CMPD).
8EUMS Role In-house military expertise for High Representative (HR) Tasking from EU Military Committee (EUMC)The role and tasks of the EUMS have some unique characteristics.On one hand, the EUMS is an integral part of the EEAS directly attached to the HR.On the other hand, it operates under the military direction of the EUMC, which it assists and to which it reports. While this arrangement could be viewed as complex, it provides a critical link between the Armed Forces of the Member States and the Council.88
9“expanded” Petersberg tasks Police, Justice, Civil Administration, Crisis Management InstrumentsMILITARY CAPABILITIESCIVILIAN CAPABILITIES“expanded” Petersberg tasksPolice, Justice, Civil Administration,Monitoring…In addition to political, diplomatic and humanitarian efforts, the EU has developed a wide range of crisis management instruments:MILITARY CAPABILITIES, that must be timely available for both robust expeditionary intervention and stabilization operations in the framework of so called “expanded Petersberg tasks that range from humanitarian and rescue tasks to tasks of combat forces in crisis management, including peace-making and post-conflict stabilization. All these tasks may contribute to the fight against terrorism, including by supporting third countries in this combat.CIVILIAN CAPABILITIES, able to contribute to internal stability of a crisis area, both through Defense and Security Sector Reform activities, and executive responsibilities, mainly in the area of police, rule of law, and civil administration;Both the Military and the Civilian capabilities are off course delivered by the Member States.And finally, the large field of mid/long term economic development, Capacity building and reconstruction programs managed by European Commission.In this broad framework, therefore, the successful implementation of an integrated civilian-military approach, in which security and development are two complementary sides of the same coin, is the distinctive feature, the specific value that EU can add to international crisis management. So the comprehensiveness in the EU is not only in the EEAS; it also incorporates the interaction between the Commission and the EEAS.CAPACITY BUILDING AND RECONSTRUCTION PROGRAMS
10Full Military support to the EU CA Comprehensive developments, e.g.:EU wide Comprehensive ApproachCiv Mil Synergies in Capability DevelopmentComprehensive EU Crisis Management mechanismComprehensive concepts, e.g.:Military support to EU Capacity Building activitiesSecurity & Force Protection (civ + mil)Comprehensive activities ‘in-theatre’, e.g.:EU Comprehensive Approach SomaliaRegional Maritime Capacity buildingWe have seen that all the instruments and preconditions for a truly CA is in place. The development towards a CA in practical terms is also strongly in motion, both in Brussels as well as in the field.In Brussels several key action are taken to further develop the EU wide CA, for instance the set up of a comprehensive EU Crisis Management mechanism and the implementation of civilian and military synergies in capability developmentsRegarding conceptual development, there is, besides the requirement to develop concepts for EU-led military operations, a growing requirement for EU-wide concepts incorporating both military and civilian instruments for Crisis Management Operations and Missions.Looking at the comprehensive activities, the EU is the biggest actor in the Horn of Africa and the recently agreed comprehensive Strategic Framework for the Horn of Africa describes 29 decisive actions of which 5 are met by the current Ops Commander ATALANTA. In the next slide I’ll further dwell on what the EU can deliver in a comprehensive approach
11EU Comprehensive Approach Somalia Conflict prevention and resolution, e.g.:EUTM SomaliaSupport AMISOMMitigation insecurity effects, e.g.:EUNAVFOR ATALANTACSDP Regional Maritime Capacity Building MissionDemocratic and accountable structuresPoverty reduction, economic growthRegional cooperationAppointment of EUSRFunding 2008–2013: € 2.5 BnA new and comprehensive EU approach has been applied to address the complex crisis situation in the Horn of Africa. In November last year, Foreign Ministers agreed to a Strategic Framework for supporting democracy, development and security in Somalia and the region. A new Special Representative is designated who will focus primarily on regional conflict, and the threat of piracy. The EU has stepped up its longstanding engagement in eight countries in the Horn of Africa, concentrating its efforts on addressing the fragility of a region still beset by poverty, conflict, the effects of climate change and migration.The EU is already heavily engaged in the region, with more than €2.5 billion of development assistance funding committed for the period The EU has also responded to specific crises – with more than €760 million of humanitarian assistance, and with its anti-piracy naval mission (EU NAVFOR) to protect World Food Programme and African Union Mission AMISOM shipping. Longer-term and more sustainable actions are underway in building EU-Africa trade relations, and in regular national and regional political dialogues.The Regional Maritime Capacity Building (RMCB) in the Horn of Africa and Western Indian Ocean (HoA & WIO) has been on the EU agenda since early In December 2011, the PSC endorsed the Crisis Management Concept (CMC) for a possible CSDP action on RMCB in the HoA & WIO, for the development of coast guard capability, for the development of the rule of law to fight piracy and on strengthening Regional Training Centres. This is a Civilian led CSDP mission with embedded Military expertise. This mission complements Operation ATALANTA, the EU Training Mission Somalia and other relevant programmes managed by the Commission as well as programmes and initiatives already being carried out by other key stakeholders in the region while minimizing any duplication.As you can seen this comprehensive approach orchestrates multiple activities in the region of which the EU Military is one of the actors.