Presentation on theme: "Regional and Social Dialects"— Presentation transcript:
1 Regional and Social Dialects SociolinguisticsChapter 6Regional and Social Dialects
2 Regional variation International varieties Pronunciation Example 2 VocabularyAustralia – sole parentBritain – single parentNew Zealand – solo parentGrammarExample 32
3 Regional variation Intranational or intra-continental variation BritainExample 4United StatesNorthern, Midland, SouthernAustralia and New ZealandLess variation in English than in Maori3
4 Regional variation Isoglosses The boundary lines that mark regional variationDialect chainsExample 54
5 Language vs. DialectWhat is a language?What is a dialect?
6 Activity 6.1Look at the use of the word ‘language’ in the four sentences. Try to work out the sense of the word in each sentence.
7 What is a language? 1 Chinese is his native language. 2 When the teacher spoke to the class, the language she used was very informal.3 If you want to know the rules of the language, you should get a good grammar book.4 In England the language they speak is called English; in China the language they speak is called Chinese.
8 What is a language?1. The word ‘language’ is used in different ways by different people, e.g., writers, journalists, educationalists, teachers and linguists.2. The meaning of the term ‘language’ is often very vague.3. The meanings of ‘language’ often overlap.
9 DialectA regionally or socially distinctive variety of a language, identified by a particular set of words and grammatical structures. […] Any language with a reasonably large number of speakers will develop dialects. (Crystal, 1980)
10 More on dialect“The term ‘dialect’ has generally been used to refer to a subordinate variety of a language. For example, we are accustomed to saying that the English language has many dialects.” (Romaine, 1994)
11 West Germanic Dialect Continuum DutchGerman dialectsDutch dialectsNetherlands Germany
12 What makes a language? Linguistic factors? Mutual intelligibility? PronunciationVocabularyGrammatical systemMutual intelligibility?
13 What makes a language?‘A language is a dialect with an army and navy.’ (Weinreich)Language has a political dimensionLanguage is political, not a linguistic categorisation
14 What makes a language?The Dutch dialects are heteronomous with respect to standard Dutch, and the German dialects to standard German. (Chambers and Trudgill, 1980: 10-11)
16 Influence of political factors on languages YugoslaviaUnder communism,Serbian and Croatian Serbo-CroatianAfter civil war,Serbo-Croatian Serbian and Croatian
17 Languages in Hong Kong Official Languages Chinese Putonghua Cantonese English
18 Languages in Hong Kong Modern Standard Chinese Written Modern Standard ChinesePutonghuaCantoneseWritten CantoneseSpoken Cantonese
19 Activity 6.2Do languages develop from dialects or do dialects develop from languages? Answer this question from the perspective of Crystal, then Weinreich.
20 Variety/CodeSociolinguists use the term variety (or sometimes code) to refer to any set of linguistic forms which patterns according to social factors.
21 Social dialectsSocial dialects are varieties which reflect people’s social backgrounds: social prestige, wealth, education, occupation, income level, residential area.
22 Received Pronunciation (RP) A prestigious social accent used by less than 5% of the population in BritainFigure 6.2Figure 6.3
23 Social dialects Vocabulary U vs. Non-U in 1950s England Pronunciation [h]-droppingExample 12Figure 6.4[in]Table 6.2Grammatical patterns
24 Department Store Study Sociolinguistic study by William Labov in 1960’sThe phrase fourth floor was elicited from sales people at three department stores
25 Rise and fall of r New York City was r-pronouncing in 18th century r-less in 19th century until World War IIr-pronouncing again after World War IIThe prestigious New York dialect (and Standard American English) is now rhotic
26 The Battleground High prestige: Sak’s Fifth Avenue Middle prestige: Macy’sLow prestige: S. Klein
31 ReferencesChambers, J.K. and P. Trudgill. (1980). Dialectology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Crystal, D. (1980). A first dictionary of linguistics and phonetics. London: André Deutsch.Labov, W. (1972b), Sociolinguistic patterns, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Romaine, S. (1994). Language in society: An introduction to sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.