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Safest Small Talk Topics TravelingWeather AccommodationHobbies TelevisionFood and drinks EducationShopping Topical events (in newspapers: earthquakes,

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Presentation on theme: "Safest Small Talk Topics TravelingWeather AccommodationHobbies TelevisionFood and drinks EducationShopping Topical events (in newspapers: earthquakes,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Safest Small Talk Topics TravelingWeather AccommodationHobbies TelevisionFood and drinks EducationShopping Topical events (in newspapers: earthquakes, plane crashes, museum robberies, [sports?,] but not politics) Gorodetskaya, /17

2 Unsafe Small Talk Topics   Americans:  British: Religion Royal family Politics Race relations (Salary/income) Salary/income Health Pets Northern Ireland 2/17 Gorodetskaya, 1996.

3 Reasons to say Taiwanese and Mandarin are TWO different languages   They are NOT mutually intelligible: (If you speak ONLY ONE of them you CANNOT understand the other) 3/17

4 Dialect Differences 1. Pronunciation 2. Vocabulary 3. Grammar / Syntax AND 4. Sociolinguistic Rules 4/17

5 Reasons to say Taiwanese and Mandarin are TWO dialects of the same language  They come from the same parent language   They are spoken in the same country   They have similar vocabulary, pronunciation, and syntax   They use the same writing system  Speakers share basically the same culture  Speakers share basically the same history 5/17

6 Standard English— One of the Varieties of English   What is printed in books and newspapers   Taught in school to English-speaking children   Taught to foreigners   ‘Educated’ variety  Used on TV and for Newscasts Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp /17

7 AmE and BritE Dialects differ in 1. 1.Pronunciation: r-less; syncopate different syllables (military); a-vowel (bath) 2. Vocabulary: lift (elevator); braces (suspenders); bonnet (hood); pavement (sidewalk); SPELLING 3. Grammar / Syntax: got/gotten; have 7/17

8 Beijing and Taiwan Mandarin Dialects differ in 1. 1.Pronunciation: 2. Vocabulary: 3. Grammar / Syntax: 8/17

9 British English RP Accent  NON-LOCALIZED   Learned in “public schools”  Used on BBC  Taught to foreigners Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp /17

10 Prevocalic and Non-Prevocalic /r/ 1. ratrich/r/ 2. carrysorry/r/ 3. cartcar/r/ vs. NO /r/ Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p /17

11 Social Significance of / r / after a Vowel US: / r / high status no / r /: low status UK:/ r / low status no / r /: high status 12/17

12 Attitudes towards and use of non-prevocalic /r/ : Upper middle class in New York City % r-positive% /r/ ageinformantsused Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p /17

13 Martha's Vineyard Pronunciation Martha’sGeneral VineyardAmerican loud/ l  ud // laud / house/ h  us // haus / about/  b  ut //  baut / Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, p /17

14 The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (Simplified)   Language shapes how we perceive the world.  The world / society shapes our language. 14/17

15 Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis and Influences on Language  Physical Environment  Social Environment or Structure  Values of Society Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp /17

16 Kinship Terms older/younger brothers older/younger sisters Father Mother YOU 16/17

17 Taboo Subjects or Words  Sex  Excretion  Christian Religion  Race  Dying Trudgill, Peter Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th edition. London: Penguin Books, pp /17


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