Presentation on theme: "Dialect n Form of a language distinctive of a region or social group n Includes pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary n Accent: only refers to differences."— Presentation transcript:
Dialect n Form of a language distinctive of a region or social group n Includes pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary n Accent: only refers to differences in pronunciation
n Dialects of a language are mutually intelligible, for the most part n Distinctions between dialects and languages rest on political and cultural criteria (not on strictly linguistic factors)
n Norwegian, Swedish and Danish are mutually intelligible but are considered separate languages n Dialects on the German-Dutch border similar but each looks to language of capital as reference
Difference model All languages/dialects: are rule-governed serve the needs of their speakers Standard is just one dialect Dialects differ but all are good.
Deficit model Socially stigmatized dialects are linguistically and cognitively deficient. Standard speech is the only correct form. Deviations from standard are wrong, lazy, careless.
Standard dialect Language variety: with highest prestige used in print taught in schools spoken by educated
Formal standard n Prescribed by grammar books, dictionaries, etc. n Based on written language of established writers n Almost universally ignored in speech
Informal standard n Language usage of groups with high social prestige those who hire and teach n Some forms rejected as “too correct”
Language attitudes Attitudes toward non-standard dialects reflect attitudes toward their speakers. Non-standard may be dismissed as not even English.
Variation by class n Features not exclusive to a class n Different frequency of usage n All classes vary speech by context