2 VarietiesHudson (1980: 24)a set of linguistic items with similar distributionFerguson (1971: 30)any body of human speech patterns which sufficiently homogeneous to be analyzed by available techniques of synchronic description and which has a sufficiently large repertory of elements and their arrangements or process with broad enough semantic scope to function in all normal context of communication.
3 VarietiesWardaugh (1988: 20) a specific set of linguistic items or human speech patterns (presumably, sounds, words, grammatical features) which we can uniquely associate with some external factors (presumably, a geographical area and a social group)
4 Language vs. Dialect There is no clear-cut or watertight concept. The criterion ‘Mutual Intelligibility’If two varieties of speech are mutual intelligible → dialectIf they are not mutual intelligible → languageProblemsa. Chinese → language7 languages with enormous internal dialect variation (not mutual intelligible) (political factor)
5 Problem on Mutual Intelligibility b. Italybordering dialects are mutually intelligiblethose farther apart → not mutual intelligibleRural dialects from the south & Italy can’t be understood by the speakers from the north.c. Scandinavian languages (Norwegian, Swedish, Danish)great mutual intelligibilitydifferent countries → language (political boundaries)
6 Problem on Mutual Intelligibility D. Yiddish dialect (Jews of eastern Europe)Mutually intelligible with many varieties of modern GermanBoth German and Jews → Yiddish & German → Language (reflection of the separate religions and cultural affinities)E. Kallabari (powerful and important people)Do not understand Nembe (social factors)
7 Problem on Mutual Intelligibility F. German vs. Dutch → language (social factors)G. Norfolk dialect vs. the Suffolk dialect (change gradually from one place to another)H. Many dialect of English not mutually intelligible. Some dialects of English are often not mutually intelligiblee.g. the mid-Atlantic states for the US may have difficulty understanding English dialects in Scotland or Ireland
8 Urdu-Hindiare the same language, but certain differences are becoming more and more magnified for political and religious reasons.1) hindi is written left to right (devanagari script), draws on Sanskrit for its borrowings2) Urdu is written right to left (Persian-arabic script), draws on Persian sources
9 intelligibility Amstrd dusseldorf cologne trier berdpn ik Ich ich A matter of degree → dialect continuum → adjacent regions can understand each other speech, regions further apart may not understand each otherThe problem is unresovable purely on linguistic ground. The decision → political and culture affinities.AmstrddusseldorfcolognetrierberdpnikIchichmakenmachenMachendorpdorfdatdas
10 Language vs. Dialect Language (prestige) and dialect (stigma) The stigmatization of the term dialect1. I don’t speak dialect2. in reality, all speakers of English speak some dialect, regardless of its social status.Most speakers use a variety of different dialects or styles in different situations.WritingColloquial speech (with friends, family)Formal speech (with strangers, authority figures)
11 Everybody speaks a dialect Accent → differences in pronunciation between one variety of a language and anotherDialect1. a variety of language used by a group whose linguistic habit pattern both reflect and are determined by shared regional, social, or cultural perspectives.2. all the differences between varieties of a language, those in pronunciation, word usage, syntax, and variation of the given community.3. to apply to all varieties, not just to non-standard varieties
12 Kinds of dialect Regional dialect Social dialect It is possible in a given community, people speak more than one dialect.
13 Social dialectsFactors such as occupation, place of residence, education, income, racial or ethnic origin, cultural background, caste, religion related to the way people speak.Social dialect originate from social groups and depend on a variety of factors; social class, religion, and ethnicity.
14 Social dialects: examples e.g.Caste in India often determines which variety of a language a speaker use.Christian, Muslim and Jewish in Baghdad speak different variety of Arabic.Ethnic group in America, e.g. Labov’s work in NY.Speakers of Jewish and Italian ethnicity differentiated from the standard variety or Black English.
15 Regional Dialect Very distinctive local varieties → regional dialect It is reflected in the differences in pronunciation, in the choice and forms of words, and in syntax.There is a dialect continuum.Various pressures-political, social, cultural, and educational- serve to harden current national boundaries an to make the linguistic differences among statesDialect geography → term → used to describe attempts made to map the distributions of various linguistic features
16 AccentDialect must not be confused with ‘accent’. Standard English is spoken in a variety of accents. RP is the English accent that has achieved certain eminence.a. associated with a higher social or educational background b. most commonly taught to students EFL c. other names for this accents: the queen’s English, Oxford English, BBC English.
17 Why do some dialects have more prestige than others? Historical factorsOther factorsSuch dialect is called ‘standard’ or ‘consensus dialects.This designation :Externally imposedThe prestige of a dialect shifts as the power relationshipThe prestige of the speakers shift
18 Standard vs. non standard language Nothing to do with differences between formal & colloquial (bad language)Standard languageVariety of English, used in print, taught in schools to non-native speakers.Spoken by educated people & used in news broadcast.The centralization of English political and commercial life at LondonGave the prominence over other dialectsStandard English →widely codified grammar & vocabularyRP → developed largely in the English public schools & required of all BBC announcers (BBC English)
19 Standard language A small number of regional differences Standard Scottish ≠ standard English English ≠ American standardBritish : I have gotAmerican : I have gottenEnglish : It needs washingScottish : It needs washed