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Meeting 3 Sociolinguistics Language, Dialect, Varieties

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1 Meeting 3 Sociolinguistics Language, Dialect, Varieties
Siti Mukminatun

2 Varieties Hudson (1980: 24) a set of linguistic items with similar distribution Ferguson (1971: 30) any body of human speech patterns which sufficiently homogeneous to be analyzed by available techniques of synchronic description and which has a sufficiently large repertory of elements and their arrangements or process with broad enough semantic scope to function in all normal context of communication.

3 Varieties Wardaugh (1988: 20) a specific set of linguistic items or human speech patterns (presumably, sounds, words, grammatical features) which we can uniquely associate with some external factors (presumably, a geographical area and a social group)

4 Language vs. Dialect There is no clear-cut or watertight concept.
The criterion ‘Mutual Intelligibility’ If two varieties of speech are mutual intelligible → dialect If they are not mutual intelligible → language Problems a. Chinese → language 7 languages with enormous internal dialect variation (not mutual intelligible) (political factor)

5 Problem on Mutual Intelligibility
b. Italy bordering dialects are mutually intelligible those farther apart → not mutual intelligible Rural dialects from the south & Italy can’t be understood by the speakers from the north. c. Scandinavian languages (Norwegian, Swedish, Danish) great mutual intelligibility different countries → language (political boundaries)

6 Problem on Mutual Intelligibility
D. Yiddish dialect (Jews of eastern Europe) Mutually intelligible with many varieties of modern German Both German and Jews → Yiddish & German → Language (reflection of the separate religions and cultural affinities) E. Kallabari (powerful and important people) Do not understand Nembe (social factors)

7 Problem on Mutual Intelligibility
F. German vs. Dutch → language (social factors) G. Norfolk dialect vs. the Suffolk dialect (change gradually from one place to another) H. Many dialect of English not mutually intelligible. Some dialects of English are often not mutually intelligible e.g. the mid-Atlantic states for the US may have difficulty understanding English dialects in Scotland or Ireland

8 Urdu-Hindi are the same language, but certain differences are becoming more and more magnified for political and religious reasons. 1) hindi is written left to right (devanagari script), draws on Sanskrit for its borrowings 2) Urdu is written right to left (Persian-arabic script), draws on Persian sources

9 intelligibility Amstrd dusseldorf cologne trier berdpn ik Ich ich
A matter of degree → dialect continuum → adjacent regions can understand each other speech, regions further apart may not understand each other The problem is unresovable purely on linguistic ground. The decision → political and culture affinities. Amstrd dusseldorf cologne trier berdpn ik Ich ich maken machen Machen dorp dorf dat das

10 Language vs. Dialect Language (prestige) and dialect (stigma)
The stigmatization of the term dialect 1. I don’t speak dialect 2. in reality, all speakers of English speak some dialect, regardless of its social status. Most speakers use a variety of different dialects or styles in different situations. Writing Colloquial speech (with friends, family) Formal speech (with strangers, authority figures)

11 Everybody speaks a dialect
Accent → differences in pronunciation between one variety of a language and another Dialect 1. a variety of language used by a group whose linguistic habit pattern both reflect and are determined by shared regional, social, or cultural perspectives. 2. all the differences between varieties of a language, those in pronunciation, word usage, syntax, and variation of the given community. 3. to apply to all varieties, not just to non-standard varieties

12 Kinds of dialect Regional dialect Social dialect
It is possible in a given community, people speak more than one dialect.

13 Social dialects Factors such as occupation, place of residence, education, income, racial or ethnic origin, cultural background, caste, religion related to the way people speak. Social dialect originate from social groups and depend on a variety of factors; social class, religion, and ethnicity.

14 Social dialects: examples
e.g. Caste in India often determines which variety of a language a speaker use. Christian, Muslim and Jewish in Baghdad speak different variety of Arabic. Ethnic group in America, e.g. Labov’s work in NY. Speakers of Jewish and Italian ethnicity differentiated from the standard variety or Black English.

15 Regional Dialect Very distinctive local varieties → regional dialect
It is reflected in the differences in pronunciation, in the choice and forms of words, and in syntax. There is a dialect continuum. Various pressures-political, social, cultural, and educational- serve to harden current national boundaries an to make the linguistic differences among states Dialect geography → term → used to describe attempts made to map the distributions of various linguistic features

16 Accent Dialect must not be confused with ‘accent’. Standard English is spoken in a variety of accents. RP is the English accent that has achieved certain eminence. a. associated with a higher social or educational background b. most commonly taught to students EFL c. other names for this accents: the queen’s English, Oxford English, BBC English.

17 Why do some dialects have more prestige than others?
Historical factors Other factors Such dialect is called ‘standard’ or ‘consensus dialects. This designation : Externally imposed The prestige of a dialect shifts as the power relationship The prestige of the speakers shift

18 Standard vs. non standard language
Nothing to do with differences between formal & colloquial (bad language) Standard language Variety of English, used in print, taught in schools to non-native speakers. Spoken by educated people & used in news broadcast. The centralization of English political and commercial life at London Gave the prominence over other dialects Standard English →widely codified grammar & vocabulary RP → developed largely in the English public schools & required of all BBC announcers (BBC English)

19 Standard language A small number of regional differences
Standard Scottish ≠ standard English English ≠ American standard British : I have got American : I have gotten English : It needs washing Scottish : It needs washed

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