User Definitions: Based on consistency of product Coproduct the output of a consistent process –materials from a consistent, quality conscious manufacturing process which has predictable food value –(distillers grains, corn gluten, soy hulls, etc.) Byproduct material with inconsistent ingredients or quality that can not be used for original intended purpose –inconsistent materials; may be unknown constituents –(corn screenings, gin trash, rejected grains, off-spec food ingredients, litter, rinse water, etc.)
Issues for Health, corn coproducts Variability ( plant to plant ; load to load ) Phosphorus urolithiasis urinary calculi, calculosis, water belly, kidney stones Inversion of Ca:P ratio Mg also a factor –Also high in DDGS and CGF –Max tolerated, ruminant diets ~ 0.4%
Issues for Health, corn coproducts Variability ( plant to plant ; load to load ) Phosphorus urolithiasis Sulphur Polioencephalomalacia –S concentrations > ~0.25 % hazard –(difficult interpretation: multiple S compounds besides sulfates and sulfides... AA, organic Ss, 5 oxidation states) –Copper (low dietrelation) –Gradual diet incorporation: especially naïve animals
Issues for Health, corn coproducts Variability ( plant to plant ; load to load ) Phosphorus urolithiasis Sulphur sulfates Copper deficiency –Given affinity of Cu and SO 4 s, DDGS & CGF have been implicated in decreased Cu absorption
Issues for Health, corn coproducts : Other Whatever else came with Corn + plant additions during processing –Mycotoxins (do survive processing) Aflatoxins: year/region; milk residues Ochratoxin: potential, regional Fumonisins: hazard in equine diets –Antimicrobial agents (processing aids) Virginiamycin, others (?) –Residues (animal products, environment)
Future? (.. for example) US Dept of Energy investment $385 mil in six plants throughout US: –Cellulosic ethanol conversion technologies & commercialization –Research on novel source materials: plant cellulose materials, e.g., stovers, straws, grasses, cobs, etc. Vegetable wastes Wood chips Landfill green & wood waste
BIODIESEL Sources: What are they? –Soybeans –other oil seed sources –Lipids.. other sources What are the coproducts??
Biodiesel CoProducts issues: Glycerin (glycerol) –Energy source –Nutritional research needed Methanol.. Animals, particularly ruminants, less sensitive to methanol than humans CO 2 + H2O –> O=CH–OH (formate) –> O=CH 2 (formaldehyde) –> CH 3 –OH (methanol) –> CH 4 (methane)
Biodiesel CoProducts issues: Source dependent e.g., raw soybeans do contain antimetabolite compounds Residues –Particularly from non-ag crop residues??
Contamination: e.g., Dioxins Twenty dioxin (D)/furan (F)/polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in yellow grease (waste fats and oils from restaurants) and in rendered fat from cattle, poultry, swine and mixed animal species (8 -18 samples per commodity). The total D/F/PCB levels found ranged from 0 to 1.6 parts per trillion (ppt) toxic equivalents (TEQ). These levels were below the 3.0 ppt TEQ maximum residue limit (MRL) recently proposed by the European Communities (EC) for D/F/PCB in animal fat. (Dr. Lovell, FDA, 2005)
Grain CoProducts use future: –CoProducts will change as processes change for extraction of new product New product extraction techniques –Economics Tax abatements Source commodities prices Processing costs/efficiencies More attention will be focused toward coproducts when profit from them is needed.
Presently: The SAFETY of grains coproducts at this time ultimately rests upon the user. * * Eventually: Plants should become more involved with product safety and problem investigation. (for their own protection)
Acknowledgements Ronald Belyea, U. of Mo Kent Rausch, U of IL Mike Tumbleson, U of IL V. J. Singh, U of IL Rausch, Belyea: The future of Coproducts from corn processing. Appl Bioch Biotech 128(47-85), 2006. Mineral Tolerances of Animals, 2 nd Rev Edition. NRC of the National Academies, 2005
Ethanol Production Clean Air Act (90s)L gas req.– 2% oxygen MTBE ban further accelerated increase Production increase expanding 20043.4 bil gal ethanol 20127.5 bil gal, by legislative mandate –(this will utilize 25 to 30% of US corn crop) ~ 1/3 of the corn mass coproducts –DDGS –Gluten feed Marketing coproducts essential income