Presentation on theme: "Small Scale NZ Biofuel Techno-Economic Investigation VISHESH ACHARYA MASTER OF ENGINEERING DR. BRENT YOUNG CHEMICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY."— Presentation transcript:
Small Scale NZ Biofuel Techno-Economic Investigation VISHESH ACHARYA MASTER OF ENGINEERING DR. BRENT YOUNG CHEMICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF AUCKLAND
OVERVIEW Introduction to Bio Ethanol Benefits of Blending Ethanol with Petrol Bio Ethanol Manufacturing Process Classification of feedstock Potential of various Starch, Sugar and Cellulosic materials as Feedstock in NZ Conclusions
What is Bio Ethanol? Alcohol based liquid fuel made from agricultural bio mass Produced by fermenting sugar from Energy crops EU, USA and Brazil mandate a minimum ethanol blend. NZ govt mandates selling a minimum of 0.25% of all fuel sold to be that of Bio fuels, starting 2008
Benefits of Blending Ethanol with Petrol Contains 35 mole percent O 2 Acts as an oxygenate – facilitates combustion to a greater extent Increases energy efficiency by 1% Emission Reduction in Emissions Carbon Monoxide25-30% Carbon Dioxide Up to 10% Volatile Organic Compounds7% SO2Decrease AromaticsDecrease
Classification of Feedstock Classified into 3 types depending upon the constituent sugars SACCHARINE: Directly fermentable 6 and 12 C sugars Glucose, Fructose and Maltose E.g. Sugar cane, Sugar beet, Whey, etc. STARCH : Carbohydrates such as Starch and Inulin E.g. Maize, Wheat, Potatoes, etc. CELLULOSE : Common material in plants Primary constituent of plant cell wall Wood, wood waste, paper, straw, etc.
Starch Crops Maize, Wheat, Barley and Milo (Sorghum) are the most extensively used Starch based feedstock Maize is the most widely used feedstock Current annual production of Maize based ethanol is ~20 Billion L
Ethanol from Maize Ethanol from Maize is produced by 2 methods: 1.Dry Milling Ethanol - Primary product Distiller Dried Grains and Solubles (DDGS) and CO 2 – Secondary Products Typical yields: 460 L EtOH/T Maize 380 kg DDGS/T Maize
Dry Milling Process for the production of Ethanol from Maize [Henderson, C. (2006)]
Ethanol from Maize 2. Wet Milling Gluten Feed, Starch, Corn oil, Corn Germ and Corn Syrup Liquid – Primary products. Starch is further hydrolysed and fermented to Ethanol Typical Yield: 440 L EtOH / T Dry Maize Yield lower than Dry milling as some starch is lost in co- products. Process more complex than Dry milling Hence, requires higher capital investment
Wet Milling Process for the production of Ethanol from Maize [Henderson, C. (2006)]
Ethanol from NZ Maize 150,000 tonne Maize grown on 13,000 Ha. of land NZ Maize yield: 12.5 t/Ha (U.S. Maize yield: 8 t/Ha) Energy input for un-irrigated arable Maize farming in NZ : 1683 MJ / t Maize Avg. US Maize farming input : 2425 MJ / t Maize
Cost – Ethanol from NZ Maize Potential Yield: 397 L EtOH / t Maize Dry Mill Process, 95 ML/yr 90.3 NZc/L EtOH Maize sourced from within 100km @ NZ$10/t Wet Mill Process, 95 ML/yr 76.6 NZc/L EtOH Maize sourced from within 100km @ NZ$10/t Ethanol made using Geothermal Steam to be cheaper by 4.5 NZc/L
Ethanol from Sugar Crops Sugar Cane and Sugar Beet widely used Ethanol feedstocks Brazil produced 4.5b Gallons of Ethanol in 2006 Contains Sucrose which can be directly fermented into Ethanol Hence, processes are relatively simpler and more cost effective Sugar Cane is of particular interest Has high ethanol yield: 7750 L/Ha (Corn: 2750 L/Ha) Shorter fermentation period of 6-10 hours (Corn: 48 - 72 hrs)
Ethanol from Waste Products – Cellulosic Waste Cellulosic materials – most abundant and potentially cheap feedstock for ethanol production Includes wastes from agriculture, forest and municipal solid waste. Potential to exploit 290,000 t.p.a of landfilled paper waste and 430,000 t.p.a. of cereal straw. Manufacturing cost estimated at NZ$0.7-NZ$1.30/ L EtOH Technology currently exists on Lab. scale only
Ethanol from Potato Processing Waste 500,000 t.p.a grown on 20% of total arable farm land Solid potato waste accounts for about 20% of potato crop Potatoes have a high fermentable carbohydrate content of 20% w/w Starch from 150,000 tonne potato waste can be potentially converted to 1.5 MML of ethanol Estimated production cost: NZ$1.4-1.5 / L EtOH Co-processing with other feedstock likely to reduce these costs by 50c to NZ$0.9-1.0 / L EtOH
Ethanol from Fruit Crop Waste – Kiwi fruit Kiwi fruit has very high content of Starch, Fructose and Sucrose. Fermentable sugar content estimated as 8%(w/w). Average ethanol yield of 44 L EtOH/t kiwi fruit. Cost of making ethanol from kiwi fruit, in an already existing ethanol plant is estimated at NZ$0.7-0.8/ L EtOH
Conclusions NZ grows several agricultural products that have the potential to be converted into bio ethanol Sugars crops such as Sugar cane are easier to process than Starch crops such as Maize. Ethanol can be produced in NZ at the cost of NZ$0.7-1.0/L EtOH depending upon the feedstock used.
Acknowledgement Foundation of Research Science and Technology (FRST) for their generous financial support Derek Turnbull, Steve Holmes Tamaki Controls Ltd. Tamaki Controls Ltd. Project Mentors Project Mentors
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