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Small Scale NZ Biofuel Techno-Economic Investigation VISHESH ACHARYA MASTER OF ENGINEERING DR. BRENT YOUNG CHEMICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY.

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Presentation on theme: "Small Scale NZ Biofuel Techno-Economic Investigation VISHESH ACHARYA MASTER OF ENGINEERING DR. BRENT YOUNG CHEMICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY."— Presentation transcript:

1 Small Scale NZ Biofuel Techno-Economic Investigation VISHESH ACHARYA MASTER OF ENGINEERING DR. BRENT YOUNG CHEMICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF AUCKLAND

2 OVERVIEW  Introduction to Bio Ethanol  Benefits of Blending Ethanol with Petrol  Bio Ethanol Manufacturing Process  Classification of feedstock  Potential of various Starch, Sugar and Cellulosic materials as Feedstock in NZ  Conclusions

3 What is Bio Ethanol?  Alcohol based liquid fuel made from agricultural bio mass  Produced by fermenting sugar from Energy crops  EU, USA and Brazil mandate a minimum ethanol blend.  NZ govt mandates selling a minimum of 0.25% of all fuel sold to be that of Bio fuels, starting 2008

4 Benefits of Blending Ethanol with Petrol  Contains 35 mole percent O 2  Acts as an oxygenate – facilitates combustion to a greater extent  Increases energy efficiency by 1% Emission Reduction in Emissions Carbon Monoxide25-30% Carbon Dioxide Up to 10% Volatile Organic Compounds7% SO2Decrease AromaticsDecrease

5 Manufacturing Process ENZYMES FERMENTATION ENZYMES YEAST BEER STRIPPER RECTIFIER SOLIDS 50% EtOH 10% EtOH WATER 95% EtOH DEHYDRATOR 99.6% FUEL GRADE ETHANOL AZEOPTROPIC Feedstock HYDROLYSIS

6 Classification of Feedstock Classified into 3 types depending upon the constituent sugars SACCHARINE: Directly fermentable 6 and 12 C sugars Glucose, Fructose and Maltose E.g. Sugar cane, Sugar beet, Whey, etc. STARCH : Carbohydrates such as Starch and Inulin E.g. Maize, Wheat, Potatoes, etc. CELLULOSE : Common material in plants Primary constituent of plant cell wall Wood, wood waste, paper, straw, etc.

7 SACHHARINE Fruits Molasses STARCH Grains Potatoes CELLULOSE DRY Green MASHING DILUTION LIQUEFACTION MILLING HYDROLYSIS PRE TREATMENT SHREDDING FERMENTATION DISTILLATION DEHYDRATION DENATURINGSTORAGE MASHING DILUTION

8 Starch Crops  Maize, Wheat, Barley and Milo (Sorghum) are the most extensively used Starch based feedstock  Maize is the most widely used feedstock  Current annual production of Maize based ethanol is ~20 Billion L

9 Ethanol from Maize  Ethanol from Maize is produced by 2 methods: 1.Dry Milling  Ethanol - Primary product  Distiller Dried Grains and Solubles (DDGS) and CO 2 – Secondary Products  Typical yields: 460 L EtOH/T Maize 380 kg DDGS/T Maize

10 Dry Milling Process for the production of Ethanol from Maize [Henderson, C. (2006)]

11 Ethanol from Maize 2. Wet Milling  Gluten Feed, Starch, Corn oil, Corn Germ and Corn Syrup Liquid – Primary products.  Starch is further hydrolysed and fermented to Ethanol  Typical Yield: 440 L EtOH / T Dry Maize  Yield lower than Dry milling as some starch is lost in co- products.  Process more complex than Dry milling  Hence, requires higher capital investment

12 Wet Milling Process for the production of Ethanol from Maize [Henderson, C. (2006)]

13 Ethanol from NZ Maize  150,000 tonne Maize grown on 13,000 Ha. of land  NZ Maize yield: 12.5 t/Ha (U.S. Maize yield: 8 t/Ha)  Energy input for un-irrigated arable Maize farming in NZ : 1683 MJ / t Maize  Avg. US Maize farming input : 2425 MJ / t Maize

14 Cost – Ethanol from NZ Maize  Potential Yield: 397 L EtOH / t Maize  Dry Mill Process, 95 ML/yr  90.3 NZc/L EtOH  Maize sourced from within 100km @ NZ$10/t  Wet Mill Process, 95 ML/yr  76.6 NZc/L EtOH  Maize sourced from within 100km @ NZ$10/t  Ethanol made using Geothermal Steam to be cheaper by 4.5 NZc/L

15 Ethanol from Sugar Crops  Sugar Cane and Sugar Beet widely used Ethanol feedstocks  Brazil produced 4.5b Gallons of Ethanol in 2006  Contains Sucrose which can be directly fermented into Ethanol  Hence, processes are relatively simpler and more cost effective  Sugar Cane is of particular interest  Has high ethanol yield: 7750 L/Ha (Corn: 2750 L/Ha)  Shorter fermentation period of 6-10 hours (Corn: 48 - 72 hrs)

16 Ethanol from Waste Products – Cellulosic Waste  Cellulosic materials – most abundant and potentially cheap feedstock for ethanol production  Includes wastes from agriculture, forest and municipal solid waste.  Potential to exploit 290,000 t.p.a of landfilled paper waste and 430,000 t.p.a. of cereal straw.  Manufacturing cost estimated at NZ$0.7-NZ$1.30/ L EtOH  Technology currently exists on Lab. scale only

17 Ethanol from Potato Processing Waste  500,000 t.p.a grown on 20% of total arable farm land  Solid potato waste accounts for about 20% of potato crop  Potatoes have a high fermentable carbohydrate content of 20% w/w  Starch from 150,000 tonne potato waste can be potentially converted to 1.5 MML of ethanol  Estimated production cost: NZ$1.4-1.5 / L EtOH  Co-processing with other feedstock likely to reduce these costs by 50c to NZ$0.9-1.0 / L EtOH

18 Ethanol from Fruit Crop Waste – Kiwi fruit  Kiwi fruit has very high content of Starch, Fructose and Sucrose.  Fermentable sugar content estimated as 8%(w/w).  Average ethanol yield of 44 L EtOH/t kiwi fruit.  Cost of making ethanol from kiwi fruit, in an already existing ethanol plant is estimated at NZ$0.7-0.8/ L EtOH

19 Conclusions  NZ grows several agricultural products that have the potential to be converted into bio ethanol  Sugars crops such as Sugar cane are easier to process than Starch crops such as Maize.  Ethanol can be produced in NZ at the cost of NZ$0.7-1.0/L EtOH depending upon the feedstock used.

20 Acknowledgement  Foundation of Research Science and Technology (FRST) for their generous financial support  Derek Turnbull, Steve Holmes Tamaki Controls Ltd. Tamaki Controls Ltd. Project Mentors Project Mentors


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