Presentation on theme: "Feeding Corn Co-products in Dairy Herds"— Presentation transcript:
1 Feeding Corn Co-products in Dairy Herds David Anderson, Texas A&M UniversityC. Wilson Gray, University of Idaho
2 Overview Overview of DDGs Characteristics Types of corn co-productsChallenges in Feeding corn co-productsEconomics of corn co-productsSummary
3 For Starters… This Isn’t New Can’t Just Feed it Alone Brewers and Distillers Grain have been fed foreverCan’t Just Feed it AloneThere aren’t many feeds you can feed exclusivelyIf Price is Right and We’ll Feed A Lot
4 Location, Location, Location… Where’s the Feed?Where are the Livestock?
5 This is a map from the National Corn Growers Association in June 2006 This is a map from the National Corn Growers Association in June The numbers are on the next page in larger font. Key message is that current production and expansion is in the corn growing areas, but proposed plants are beyond the corn belt. Where will they get the feedstock. The other factor is that this list is out of date.
7 Key points on ethanol co-products What types of products are available?How much product can be used in the ration?How different are the nutritional properties of specific co-products (low oil, low protein, modified moisture, mixtures)?Which feed ration combinations work best?Can the variation in some nutrients be reduced?Source: Dan Loy, ISU
8 Types of DDG Processing Wet MillAccounts for largest share & costlyMultiple Products:high fructose sweetener, corn oil, ethanolcorn gluten meal, corn gluten feed and other typesDry GrindGenerally smaller and less costlyTwo Products:EthanolDistillers Grain and Solubles
9 Wet Milling - Corn Gluten Feed STEEPCORNGRINDWASH WATERSEPARATIONSTARCH, SWEETNER, ALCOHOLGLUTEN MEALCORN OILThese mills tend to be very large and very expensive to build. ADM, Cargill and others have these plants. This process also has more flexibility on what is produced. The final product is corn gluten feed (wet or Dry). Corn gluten meal is also produced in small quantities and it often used in poultry rations.STEEPCORN BRANSEM, screenings, dist solublesWET CORN GLUTEN FEEDDRY CORN GLUTEN FEED
10 Products of Wet Corn Milling One bushel of corn produces:Product PoundsStarchFurther processed into 33# of sweetener or 2.5 gallons of ethanolGluten feedGluten mealCorn meal
11 Corn Gluten Feed (CGF) Corn bran + steep Can be wet or dry Moderate crude protein, CP = 16-23%80% of CP is DIP (ruminally degradable)Low fat, moderate fiber, TDN = 80% of energy value of dry-rolled cornProduct variation is significant within and across plants due to amount of steep added back to the corn branOatmeal-type appearanceThis product is often marketed under a brand name by the company. For example, Sweet Brand.
12 Dry Milling - Distillers Grains+Solubles CORNGRIND, WET, COOKFERMENTATIONYEAST, ENZYMESSTILLALCOHOL & CO2Most of the recent plants built have been this technology. They are generally cheaper to build, but have less flexibility in ther product. They produce alcohol, CO2 and Distilers grains and solubles.STILLAGEDISTILLERS GRAINSWDG, DDGDISTILLERS SOLUBLESWDGSDDGS
13 Products of Dry Corn Milling One bushel of corn produces:Ethanol gallonsDistillers grains & solubles poundsDGS are one third the weight of the corn and all but the starch is concentrated into this one-thirdSulfur is concentrated and may have been used in the fermenting processMycotoxins, if they existed in the corn are also concentrated 3:1
14 Distillers Grains + Solubles Distillers Grains (65%) & Solubles (35%) (DM basis)May be wet or driedHigher crude protein, CP = 30%65% UIP (undegraded, “bypass”, protein)High fat (11%), TDN =Concentrates nutrients 3-fold from corn0.8% P, % Sulfur (variable)Mashed potatoes-type appearanceNewer plants are more efficient and may produce up to 3 gallons per bushel of corn, but the amount of DDGS is still about pounds. Sulfur can be a problem when inclusion rates are relatively high. The main mycotoxin concern is aflotoxin and vomitoxin.
15 Nutrient Composition of Selected Corn Milling Co-Products
16 Starch Removal Concentrates - Other Nutrients CGF - ???? Corn Gluten FeedDGS – ???? Dried Grain Solubles or DDGS Dried Distillers Grain SolublesSource: Dan Loy, ISU
17 Ruminant Energy Value of DDGS Good Quality DDGS contains:7-11% more energy than “book values”10-20% more energy than cornNEL = 1.00 Mcal/lbNEM = 1.06 Mcal/lbNEG = 0.73 Mcal/lbTDN = 94%DE = 1.84 Mcal/lbME = 1.64 Mcal/lb
18 Protein in Distiller’s Grains 30% of DM and more than old “book values”Similar for DDG & DDGSGood source of Ruminally Undegradable Protein (approximately 55% RUP)RUP is slightly less for wet vs. dry DDGProtein qualityFairly good qualityLysine is first limiting amino acid
19 How Much Can be Fed to Dairy Cows? Max. of ~ 20% of ration DMlb/d of driedlb/d of wetUsually no palatability problem at 30% of DM:May decrease DMI, especially if Wet CDGMay feed excess proteinAt > 30% of DMMay negatively impact butterfat and protein in milkCalvesUp to 20% DMIReplacement HeifersUp to 25% DMISource: Shurson, U of MN
21 Challenges of DDGS Storage and handling is more costly High levels of feeding management is requiredBunk management and mixingNutrient balancesNutrient (manure) management is more costlySome nutrients are concentrated (e.g., P)Source: Dan Loy, ISU
22 Challenges of DDGS Must be golden brown Flowability Pellet quality Dark brown is over heated and ties up lysineFlowabilityPellet qualityRequires another bin for storageAbrupt changes may put cows off-feed
23 Challenges of DDGS Wet vs. Dry Distiller’s Grains for Dairy Cows Nutrient content of DM is the sameWet Distiller’s Grains ConsiderationsUsual storage period is 5-7 daysMay require preservatives (e.g. propionic acid)Limited hauling distanceMay make rations too wetLimits total DM intake especially when silages are used
24 Storing Wet DGS Storing Wet DGS product: Often delivered in truck load lotsCan store wet DGS in bunker, silage bag or in pile covered with plastic to protect from airShould mix with tub-ground forage and sotred in bunker or bagNeed to have the “mix: right….
27 Potential DDG Usage Species Limit % Use b/lbs Fed Cattle 35 28.9 Cows/Stockers4.0Dairy1015.0Hogs9.0Sows153.0Broilers13.0Turkeys1.6Total74.5Note: Use b/lbs is usage in billion pounds
28 Distillers Grain Production & Use Potential UseRealistic Use
29 Ratio of Corn to DDGS Prices Ratio of Dollars per Pound, Central Illinois DDGS and Texas Triangle Corn
30 Economic impact of including DGS Source: Garcia & Taylor, SDSU
31 Interactions – Economic Realities Higher Feed CostsByproducts offer some price mitigationMarkets Respond Through PriceFeeder cattle and calf pricesReduced ProductionLower milk production per cow, producers exit industryLivestock Industry Less CompetitiveWorld market, regionally in U.S.Higher Food Costs for ConsumersTransitional Period is CriticalSupply response, energy, technology, food and feed markets
32 Summary Use in Moderation There are limitsDDGS can be superior to cornWDGS are better than DDGSChallenges are manageableDistiller’s grains are not as cheap as once wasPrice moves directly with corn pricesUse can reduce ration costs