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David Anderson, Texas A&M University C. Wilson Gray, University of Idaho Feeding Corn Co-products in Dairy Herds.

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Presentation on theme: "David Anderson, Texas A&M University C. Wilson Gray, University of Idaho Feeding Corn Co-products in Dairy Herds."— Presentation transcript:

1 David Anderson, Texas A&M University C. Wilson Gray, University of Idaho Feeding Corn Co-products in Dairy Herds

2 Overview Overview of DDGs Characteristics –Types of corn co-products –Challenges in Feeding corn co-products Economics of corn co-products Summary

3 For Starters… This Isn’t New –Brewers and Distillers Grain have been fed forever Can’t Just Feed it Alone –There aren’t many feeds you can feed exclusively If Price is Right and We’ll Feed A Lot

4 Location, Location, Location… Where’s the Feed? Where are the Livestock?

5

6 Distiller’s Grain Basics

7 Key points on ethanol co-products What types of products are available? How much product can be used in the ration? How different are the nutritional properties of specific co-products (low oil, low protein, modified moisture, mixtures)? Which feed ration combinations work best? Can the variation in some nutrients be reduced? Source: Dan Loy, ISU

8 Types of DDG Processing Wet Mill –Accounts for largest share & costly –Multiple Products: high fructose sweetener, corn oil, ethanol corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed and other types Dry Grind –Generally smaller and less costly –Two Products: Ethanol Distillers Grain and Solubles

9 Wet Milling - Corn Gluten Feed CORNSTEEP WASH WATERGRIND SEPARATION WET CORN GLUTEN FEED STARCH, SWEETNER, ALCOHOL GLUTEN MEAL CORN OIL STEEPCORN BRAN DRY CORN GLUTEN FEED SEM, screenings, dist solubles

10 Products of Wet Corn Milling One bushel of corn produces: ProductPounds –Starch 31.5 Further processed into 33# of sweetener or 2.5 gallons of ethanol –Gluten feed 13.5 –Gluten meal 2.5 –Corn meal 1.6

11 Corn Gluten Feed (CGF) Corn bran + steep Can be wet or dry Moderate crude protein, CP = 16-23% –80% of CP is DIP (ruminally degradable) Low fat, moderate fiber, TDN = % of energy value of dry-rolled corn Product variation is significant within and across plants due to amount of steep added back to the corn bran Oatmeal-type appearance

12 Dry Milling - Distillers Grains+Solubles CORN GRIND, WET, COOK FERMENTATION YEAST, ENZYMES STILLALCOHOL & CO 2 STILLAGE DISTILLERS GRAINS WDG, DDG DISTILLERS SOLUBLES WDGS DDGS

13 Products of Dry Corn Milling One bushel of corn produces: –Ethanol 2.7 gallons –Distillers grains & solubles17-18 pounds DGS are one third the weight of the corn and all but the starch is concentrated into this one-third Sulfur is concentrated and may have been used in the fermenting process Mycotoxins, if they existed in the corn are also concentrated 3:1

14 Distillers Grains + Solubles Distillers Grains (65%) & Solubles (35%) (DM basis) May be wet or dried Higher crude protein, CP = 30% –65% UIP (undegraded, “bypass”, protein) High fat (11%), TDN = Concentrates nutrients 3-fold from corn –0.8% P, % Sulfur (variable) Mashed potatoes-type appearance

15 Nutrient Composition of Selected Corn Milling Co-Products

16 Starch Removal Concentrates - Other Nutrients Source: Dan Loy, ISU

17 Ruminant Energy Value of DDGS Good Quality DDGS contains: 7-11% more energy than “book values” 10-20% more energy than corn NE L = 1.00 Mcal/lb NE M = 1.06 Mcal/lb NE G = 0.73 Mcal/lb TDN = 94% DE = 1.84 Mcal/lb ME = 1.64 Mcal/lb

18 Protein in Distiller’s Grains 30% of DM and more than old “book values” –Similar for DDG & DDGS Good source of Ruminally Undegradable Protein (approximately 55% RUP) –RUP is slightly less for wet vs. dry DDG Protein quality –Fairly good quality –Lysine is first limiting amino acid

19 How Much Can be Fed to Dairy Cows? Max. of ~ 20% of ration DM lb/d of dried lb/d of wet Usually no palatability problem at 30% of DM: –May decrease DMI, especially if Wet CDG –May feed excess protein At > 30% of DM –May negatively impact butterfat and protein in milk Calves –Up to 20% DMI Replacement Heifers –Up to 25% DMI Source: Shurson, U of MN

20 Challenges

21 Challenges of DDGS Storage and handling is more costly High levels of feeding management is required –Bunk management and mixing –Nutrient balances Nutrient (manure) management is more costly –Some nutrients are concentrated (e.g., P) Source: Dan Loy, ISU

22 Challenges of DDGS Must be golden brown –Dark brown is over heated and ties up lysine Flowability Pellet quality Requires another bin for storage Abrupt changes may put cows off-feed

23 Challenges of DDGS Wet vs. Dry Distiller’s Grains for Dairy Cows –Nutrient content of DM is the same –Wet Distiller’s Grains Considerations Usual storage period is 5-7 days May require preservatives (e.g. propionic acid) Limited hauling distance May make rations too wet –Limits total DM intake especially when silages are used

24 Storing Wet DGS Storing Wet DGS product: –Often delivered in truck load lots –Can store wet DGS in bunker, silage bag or in pile covered with plastic to protect from air –Should mix with tub-ground forage and sotred in bunker or bag –Need to have the “mix: right….

25 Economics: A Little Supply and Demand

26 U.S. Distillers Grain Production

27 Potential DDG Usage SpeciesLimit %Use b/lbs Fed Cattle Cows/Stockers4.0 Dairy Hogs109.0 Sows153.0 Broilers Turkeys101.6 Total74.5 Note: Use b/lbs is usage in billion pounds

28 Realistic Use Potential Use Distillers Grain Production & Use

29 Ratio of Corn to DDGS Prices Ratio of Dollars per Pound, Central Illinois DDGS and Texas Triangle Corn

30 Economic impact of including DGS Source: Garcia & Taylor, SDSU

31 Interactions – Economic Realities Higher Feed Costs –Byproducts offer some price mitigation Markets Respond Through Price –Feeder cattle and calf prices Reduced Production –Lower milk production per cow, producers exit industry Livestock Industry Less Competitive –World market, regionally in U.S. Higher Food Costs for Consumers Transitional Period is Critical –Supply response, energy, technology, food and feed markets

32 Summary Use in Moderation –There are limits –DDGS can be superior to corn –WDGS are better than DDGS –Challenges are manageable Distiller’s grains are not as cheap as once was –Price moves directly with corn prices –Use can reduce ration costs


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