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General Livestock Feeding Topic # 3046 Ms. Blakeley

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1 General Livestock Feeding Topic # 3046 Ms. Blakeley

2 Animals are the result of: n Genetics n Health n Care and Management n What they eat all feeds come directly from plants 2/3 of livestock feed is not suited to humans

3 What are Nutrients? n Chemical substances found in feed materials that can be used, and are necessary for the maintenance, production, and health of animals n _________ are needed by animals in definite amounts varying with age, function, use etc.

4 Nutrients n _______________

5 Carbohydrates n More abundant and cheaper n Very easily __________ and turned into body fat n Easier storage than fats n Found in all __________________ n (corn, wheat, barley, oats, & rye)

6 Proteins n Complex compounds made of amino acids n In all _______ and _________ cells n Nitrogen content multiplied by 6.25 tells the amount of protein n Plants make their own protein

7 Source of Protein n Animal Proteins are superior for monogastrics better balanced in essential amino acids n Milk and Eggs are abundant in essential amino acids

8 Plant Protein Sources n Supplements ________ by-products __________ meal _____________ meal linseed meal peanut meal safflower meal rapeseed meal

9 Fats n Needed in fairly _______ amounts n Most sources of __________ are sources of fat n Especially oil seeds and animal by- products

10 Minerals n Minerals are the ____________ elements of animals and plants n Determined by burning off the organic matter and weighing the residue (called ______) n 2 to 5% of animal are minerals (bones, teeth, part of blood, fluids)

11 Vitamins n Roughages, concentrates, feeds, by-products & some are made by the body itself n Required in ________ amounts for normal growth n Specific functions

12 Feed Additives n _____% of food animals get some drug during lifetime n chemicals that regulate growth, modify rumen activity, improve feed efficiency increase 15% each yr. n lower production _______ n unsafe if used improperly

13 Antibiotics n produced by _______ __________ n bacteriostatic properties growth stimulators better feed efficiency n Low levels in feeds n High (therapeutic) levels in feeds

14 What is a Feedstuff? n any ingredient, or material, fed to animals for the purpose of sustaining them n most provide one or more nutrients n _______________ = flavor, color, palatability, adding bulk, preservatives

15 Feed Classifications n _____________ n __________________ n (By-product feeds) n Special Feeds n Additives, Implants, & Injections

16 Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) n Most extensively used system n %TDN = %DCP + %DCF + %DNFE + (%DF x 2.25) DCP: digestible crude ________ DCF: digestible crude _______ DNFE: digestible ________ free extract DF: digestible ______

17 Roughages n ______ feeds low in weight per unit n Contain more than 18% crude fiber n Low in _________ n Natural feeds of ruminants n Generally low in digestibility n Protein varies

18 Roughages n Pastures n ______ varies more than any other feed harvest at optimum time cure properly 20% moisture or less n Crop Residues left in field after harvest straw, corn stalks, etc

19 Roughages n _______ = fermented forage plants mostly corn or sorghum n Haylage = low moisture silage grass or legume wilted to 40-60% moisture before ensiling n Green Chop (soilage) fresh plants cut & chopped in the field, transported & fed to confined animals

20 Roughages – Other cottonseed hulls corncobs sawdust beet tops root crops oat hulls peanut hay newspapers

21 Concentrates n Feeds high in energy and low in _______ (under 18%) n Availability and Price n Need to substitute concentrates for each other as price changes n Corn, Sorghum, barley, rye, oats, wheat, triticale

22 By-Product Feeds (roughage and concentrate) n Feeds ______ ______ from animal and plant processing or industrial manufacturing Milling by-products from: –cereal grains –oilseeds –root crops –dried beet pulp and tops –distillery and brewing –unused bakery products –fruits and nuts

23 By-Product Feeds n Effective & Profitable Use: price composition be known palatable and consumed not adversely affect carcass quality –chemical residues –pesticides

24 Special Feeds n _____________: first milk given by mammals after parturition contains antibodies within 15 min to 4 hours surplus colostrum can be frozen for up to a year or more can feed cow colostrum to lambs etc., but some diseases are species specific

25 Special Feeds n Milk ___________ can’t replace colostrum is fortified with vitamins, minerals & antibiotics higher fat reduces diarrhea

26 Special Feeds n Fats and _______ acidulated soap stock, tallows, greases n ______ increases calories of ration (2 1/4 times energy of carbohydrates) controls dust –animals don’t like dusty rations lessons wear on feed mixing equip.

27 Special Feeds n ___________ by-product from sugar manufacture 3/4 energy value of corn appetizer reduce dust, pellet binder stimulate rumen activity

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