8 The Founding of Rome Early Legends According to legend, Romulus founded Rome in 753 B.C. Legend begins after Aeneas—Trojan War hero—settles in ItalyAeneasʼ descendants—twins Romulus and Remus—wanted to found city - twins fought over cityʼs position; Romulus killed Remus - Romulus traced Romeʼs boundaries around Palatine HillRoman kings ruled city until conquered by Etruscans in 600s B.C.Romans overthrew Etruscans in 509 B.C.- formed republic—government in which people elect leaders
10 The Etruscans First inhabitants of Northern Italy c. 750 BCE Conquered Rome around 600 BCESkilled artisans, farmers and accomplished tradersIn Rome, the Etruscans dug an enormous ditch (Great Sewer) to create a drained area named the Forumcontributed to the rise of Rome and cultureFirst inhabitants of Northern Italy c. 750 BCEConquered Rome around 600 BCEBurial customs= tombs hollowed out of group or under mounds of dirtInterior of tombs resembled houses of livingSkilled artisans, farmers and accomplished tradersIn Rome, they dug an enormous ditch (Great Sewer) to create a drained area named the Forum which became the heart of Rome (people meet to talk, trade, govern and worship)contributed to the rise of Rome and culture
11 Etruscan Influence on RomAN Culture artistic stylesreligious practices and godsclothingBlood sports
12 Influence on Rome (continued) The AlphabetThe archDesign of houses and templesWater and drainage systems
13 Etruscan Monarchy First Etruscan King was Romulus Etruscans expanded power and took control over RomansLast Etruscan King was Tarquin the Proud expelled by a popular rebellion in 509 BCERomans did not want to be ruled by kings anymorePaved way for Rome to create a RepublicFirst King was Romulus = based on ancient myth (raised at Palatine aka Seven Hills of Rome and future residence of emperors) -high magistrates of Roman Republic used purple robes and ivory thornes of Etruscan kings (lucumones) -symbol of authority over life an death called fasces (axe bound into a bundle of wooden rods; when magistrates were present, it was carried by an escort of officials known as lictors-Tarquin the Proud= expelled by a popular rebellion in 509 BCE-rebellion had been sparked bc the king’s son Sextus raped a virtuous aristocratic woman named Lucretia, who consequently committed suicide. -
15 Government in Action What makes a successful leader? Scenario: You are a member of the Senate in ancient Rome. Soon you must decide to support or oppose a powerful leader who wants to become ruler. Many consider him a military genius for having gained territory and wealth for Rome. Others point out that he disobeyed orders and is both ruthless and devious. You wonder whether his ambition would lead to greater prosperity and order in the empire or to injustice and unrest.
16 Warm- Up: Discussion Questions ??? Which is more important in measuring leadership- results or a person’s integrity??What do you value in an leader ?Does a leader have to be likable in order to succeed??
17 The Origins of Rome: Review! Rome’s GeographySite of Rome chosen for its fertile soil and strategic locationLocated on Italian Peninsula in the center of the Mediterranean Sea.Built on seven hills along Tiber RiverThe First RomansLatins, Greeks, and Etruscans compete for control of the region.Latins found original settlement of Rome between 1000 B.C. and 500 B.C.Etruscans native to northern Italy influence Roman civilization***What factors of Geography influenced Rome’s Development? ***
18 The Early Republic Early Rulers Around 600 B.C. Etruscan kings begin to rule Rome.Kings build Rome’s first temples and public centersRomans overthrow cruel Etruscan kings in 509 B.C.Romans found a republic—a government in which citizens elect leaders ( ‘a thing of the people’ )
19 The Early Republic Patricians and Plebeians Different groups struggle for power in early Roman RepublicPatricians—wealthy landowning class that holds most of the powerPlebeians—artisans, merchants and farmers; can vote, but cannot ruleTribunes—elected representatives who protect Plebeians’ rights
20 The Early Republic Government Under the Republic Rome elects two consuls—one to lead the army and one to direct government.Senate—chosen from Roman upper class; makes foreign and domestic policy.Democratic assemblies elect tribunes and makes laws for common people.Dictators are leaders appointed briefly in times of crisis, usually on of the consuls
24 The Early Republic Twelve Tables In 451 B.C. officials carve Roman laws on twelve tablets.Called the Twelve Tables, they become the basis for later Roman law.Laws confirm the right of all free citizens to the protection of the law.Citizenship is limited to adult male landowners.The Twelve Tables are hung in the Forum
25 Silly Laws? Comparative Laws Any examples of laws that you can think of that could be considered awkward ?Either in history or current?Let us take a look at some laws found in the Twelve Tables together. . .
26 The Early Republic The Roman Army Roman legion—military unit of 5,000 infantry, supported by cavalry.Army is powerful and a key factor in Rome’s rise to greatness.
27 Rome Spreads Its Power Rome Conquers Italy The Romans defeat the Etruscans in the north and the Greek city-states in the south.By 265 B.C., Rome controls the entire Italian peninsula.Rome treats the conquered peoples justly. This enables Rome to grow.
28 Rome Spreads Its Power Rome’s Commercial Network Rome establishes a large trading network.Access to the Mediterranean Sea provides many trade routes.Carthage, a powerful city-state in North Africa, soon rivals Rome.
29 Rome Spreads Its Power War with Carthage Rome Triumphs Rome and Carthage begin the Punic Wars—three wars between 264 through 146 B.C.Rome defeats Carthage and wins Sicily in the first 23-year war.Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, avenges this defeat in the Second Punic War.He attacks Italy through Spain and France, but doesn’t take Rome.Rome TriumphsRoman general Scipio defeats Hannibal in 202 B.C.Rome destroys Carthage and enslaves its people in the Third Punic War from B.C.
30 Hannibal crossing the Alps in the Second Punic War
31 Attempts at Reform & Stability Section 2 The widening gap between the rich and poor was starting to become a constant issueDue to new wealth from the expanding Roman Empire ( page 135)Farmers went into debtThe Gracchus brothers were slain in the streetsDistribute land to poor farmers (Page 135)Republic unable to resolve issues peacefullyResult: A century of civil warTurmoil: slaves & allies
34 Early life:FYI Born a patrician family in 100 B.C. As a child, he would claim he was a descendent of the goddess VenusCaesar’s father suddenly died and at age 16, Caesar became the head of the householdAs a young man, Caesar was nominated for many important positions such as the Flamen Dialis(High Priest of Jupiter)He later joined the army, where he served with distinction.He was later elected as military tribune and served in Hispania (modern day Spain).
35 Rise to powerWhile in Hispania, Caesar (age 30) came across a statue of Alexander the Great and wept, for Alexander had conquered most of the known world by the same age and Caesar had accomplished so little.