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Ancient Rome Chapter 6.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Rome Chapter 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Rome Chapter 6

2 All roads lead to Rome!


4 The Roman Empire

5 Timeline of Ancient Rome
Rome founded in 753 BCE -first ruled by kings -Became a republic in 509 BCE -by 275 BCE Rome controlled the entire Italian Penninsula


7 The Seven Hills of Rome

8 The Founding of Rome Early Legends
According to legend, Romulus founded Rome in 753 B.C. Legend begins after Aeneas—Trojan War hero—settles in Italy Aeneasʼ descendants—twins Romulus and Remus—wanted to found city - twins fought over cityʼs position; Romulus killed Remus - Romulus traced Romeʼs boundaries around Palatine Hill Roman kings ruled city until conquered by Etruscans in 600s B.C. Romans overthrew Etruscans in 509 B.C. - formed republic—government in which people elect leaders


10 The Etruscans First inhabitants of Northern Italy c. 750 BCE
Conquered Rome around 600 BCE Skilled artisans, farmers and accomplished traders In Rome, the Etruscans dug an enormous ditch (Great Sewer) to create a drained area named the Forum contributed to the rise of Rome and culture First inhabitants of Northern Italy c. 750 BCE Conquered Rome around 600 BCE Burial customs= tombs hollowed out of group or under mounds of dirt Interior of tombs resembled houses of living Skilled artisans, farmers and accomplished traders In Rome, they dug an enormous ditch (Great Sewer) to create a drained area named the Forum which became the heart of Rome (people meet to talk, trade, govern and worship) contributed to the rise of Rome and culture

11 Etruscan Influence on RomAN Culture
artistic styles religious practices and gods clothing Blood sports

12 Influence on Rome (continued)
The Alphabet The arch Design of houses and temples Water and drainage systems

13 Etruscan Monarchy First Etruscan King was Romulus
Etruscans expanded power and took control over Romans Last Etruscan King was Tarquin the Proud expelled by a popular rebellion in 509 BCE Romans did not want to be ruled by kings anymore Paved way for Rome to create a Republic First King was Romulus = based on ancient myth (raised at Palatine aka Seven Hills of Rome and future residence of emperors) -high magistrates of Roman Republic used purple robes and ivory thornes of Etruscan kings (lucumones) -symbol of authority over life an death called fasces (axe bound into a bundle of wooden rods; when magistrates were present, it was carried by an escort of officials known as lictors -Tarquin the Proud= expelled by a popular rebellion in 509 BCE -rebellion had been sparked bc the king’s son Sextus raped a virtuous aristocratic woman named Lucretia, who consequently committed suicide. -

14 The Roman Republic

15 Government in Action What makes a successful leader?
Scenario: You are a member of the Senate in ancient Rome. Soon you must decide to support or oppose a powerful leader who wants to become ruler. Many consider him a military genius for having gained territory and wealth for Rome. Others point out that he disobeyed orders and is both ruthless and devious. You wonder whether his ambition would lead to greater prosperity and order in the empire or to injustice and unrest.

16 Warm- Up: Discussion Questions ???
Which is more important in measuring leadership- results or a person’s integrity?? What do you value in an leader ? Does a leader have to be likable in order to succeed??

17 The Origins of Rome: Review!
Rome’s Geography Site of Rome chosen for its fertile soil and strategic location Located on Italian Peninsula in the center of the Mediterranean Sea. Built on seven hills along Tiber River The First Romans Latins, Greeks, and Etruscans compete for control of the region. Latins found original settlement of Rome between 1000 B.C. and 500 B.C. Etruscans native to northern Italy influence Roman civilization ***What factors of Geography influenced Rome’s Development? ***

18 The Early Republic Early Rulers
Around 600 B.C. Etruscan kings begin to rule Rome. Kings build Rome’s first temples and public centers Romans overthrow cruel Etruscan kings in 509 B.C. Romans found a republic—a government in which citizens elect leaders ( ‘a thing of the people’ )

19 The Early Republic Patricians and Plebeians
Different groups struggle for power in early Roman Republic Patricians—wealthy landowning class that holds most of the power Plebeians—artisans, merchants and farmers; can vote, but cannot rule Tribunes—elected representatives who protect Plebeians’ rights

20 The Early Republic Government Under the Republic
Rome elects two consuls—one to lead the army and one to direct government. Senate—chosen from Roman upper class; makes foreign and domestic policy. Democratic assemblies elect tribunes and makes laws for common people. Dictators are leaders appointed briefly in times of crisis, usually on of the consuls

21 The Roman Senate: Cicero

22 The Checks and Balances of the Republican form of Gov’t

23 Twelve Tables: Roman Code of Law

24 The Early Republic Twelve Tables
In 451 B.C. officials carve Roman laws on twelve tablets. Called the Twelve Tables, they become the basis for later Roman law. Laws confirm the right of all free citizens to the protection of the law. Citizenship is limited to adult male landowners. The Twelve Tables are hung in the Forum

25 Silly Laws? Comparative Laws
Any examples of laws that you can think of that could be considered awkward ? Either in history or current? Let us take a look at some laws found in the Twelve Tables together. . .

26 The Early Republic The Roman Army
Roman legion—military unit of 5,000 infantry, supported by cavalry. Army is powerful and a key factor in Rome’s rise to greatness.

27 Rome Spreads Its Power Rome Conquers Italy
The Romans defeat the Etruscans in the north and the Greek city-states in the south. By 265 B.C., Rome controls the entire Italian peninsula. Rome treats the conquered peoples justly. This enables Rome to grow.

28 Rome Spreads Its Power Rome’s Commercial Network
Rome establishes a large trading network. Access to the Mediterranean Sea provides many trade routes. Carthage, a powerful city-state in North Africa, soon rivals Rome.

29 Rome Spreads Its Power War with Carthage Rome Triumphs
Rome and Carthage begin the Punic Wars—three wars between 264 through 146 B.C. Rome defeats Carthage and wins Sicily in the first 23-year war. Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, avenges this defeat in the Second Punic War. He attacks Italy through Spain and France, but doesn’t take Rome. Rome Triumphs Roman general Scipio defeats Hannibal in 202 B.C. Rome destroys Carthage and enslaves its people in the Third Punic War from B.C.

30 Hannibal crossing the Alps in the Second Punic War

31 Attempts at Reform & Stability Section 2
The widening gap between the rich and poor was starting to become a constant issue Due to new wealth from the expanding Roman Empire ( page 135) Farmers went into debt The Gracchus brothers were slain in the streets Distribute land to poor farmers (Page 135) Republic unable to resolve issues peacefully Result: A century of civil war Turmoil: slaves & allies


33 Julius Caesar All hail Caesar! All hail Rome!

34 Early life:FYI Born a patrician family in 100 B.C.
As a child, he would claim he was a descendent of the goddess Venus Caesar’s father suddenly died and at age 16, Caesar became the head of the household As a young man, Caesar was nominated for many important positions such as the Flamen Dialis (High Priest of Jupiter) He later joined the army, where he served with distinction. He was later elected as military tribune and served in Hispania (modern day Spain).

35 Rise to power While in Hispania, Caesar (age 30) came across a statue of Alexander the Great and wept, for Alexander had conquered most of the known world by the same age and Caesar had accomplished so little.


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