3 The Eight Characteristics of Life Must have all to be living Organization & the presence of one (unicellular) or more cells (multicellular)Response to a stimulus (stimuli)3. Homeostasis4. Metabolism5. Growth & Development6. Reproduction7. Change through time8. Universal Genetic Code: DNA
4 EcologyEcology: the study of how living things interact with their physical environmentEcology
5 Ecological Organization 1. Organism (individual)Anything that possesses all of the characteristics of life Species: a group of organisms that can mate & produce a fertile offspring2. Population: All members of a organism live in one place at one time3. Community: a collection of interacting populations in an area4. Ecosystem: includes all of the organisms & the non-living environment.5. Biosphere: the portion of the earth where all life exists.
6 Ecological Organization *community members in the ecosystem must interact to maintain a balance.Put in order:(small to large)communitypopulationbiosphereorganismecosystem
8 Ecosystems An ecosystem is self-sustaining if: A constant source of energyis supplied.Living things use this energy andconvert into organic moleculesA cycling of materials betweenorganisms and their environment
9 ResourcesOrganisms with similar needs may compete with each other for resources like:Limiting FactorsFoodSpaceWaterAirShelterDetermines the types of organisms that exist in that environment
10 Acclimation when organisms acclimate to changes Range of Tolerance: the ability of an organism to withstand changes in their environment.
12 Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic factors: Living Factors of the environmentExamples Predators, food,Abiotic factors- the nonliving parts of an environment.Examples temperature, moisture, light, and soil.
13 Biotic FactorsBiotic factors: living factors which affect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduceExamples:other organisms, such as a predator, food sourceCan an abiotic factor such as RAIN affect many biotic factors?Rain - ________ - ________ - _________grassmoleeagle
15 Nutritional Relationships Two types : Autotrophs & HeterotrophsAutotrophs: organisms that synthesis their own food.(plants)2. Heterotrophs: can NOT synthesize their own food and are dependent on other organisms for their food
16 Energy flows through Ecosystems Producers = autotrophsConsumers = heterotrophs
17 Consumers Herbivores Eat Only Plants Carnivores Eat Only Other Animals Omnivores (That’s You)Eat Plants & AnimalsDetritivoresFeed On Dead Plant & Animal RemainsDecomposersBreaks down organic matterFungi & Bacteria
18 Heterotrophs eat other organisms to obtain energy. ConsumersHeterotrophs eat other organisms to obtain energy.Omnivores (That’s You)Eat Plants & AnimalsDetritivoresFeed On Dead Plant & Animal RemainsDecomposersBreaks down organic matterFungi & Bacteria
19 Types of Carnivores Predators: animals which kill and consume other animals (prey)Prey: animals which are killed by predators
33 Feeding Relationships Key Concept:Energy flows through an ecosystem in one directionfrom producers to various levels of consumers
34 Energy Flow in an Ecosystem Food chain: a single pathway of feeding relationships among organisms that involves the transfer of energy.
35 Feeding Relationships Food ChainSimple Energy path through an ecosystem
36 Food Web More realistic path through an ecosystem
37 Each Level In A Food Chain or Food Web is a Trophic Level. Trophic LevelsEach Level In A Food Chain or Food Web is a Trophic Level.ProducersAlways The First Trophic LevelHow Energy Enters The SystemHerbivoresSecond Trophic LevelCarnivores/OmnivoresMake Up The Remaining Trophic Levels
38 Each level depends on the one below it for energy.
39 Ecological PyramidsGraphic Representations Of The Relative Amounts of Energy or Matter At Each Trophic LevelEnergy PyramidBiomass PyramidPyramid of Numbers
40 Energy Pyramidshows the amount of energy available at each trophic levelOnly use 10% of the energy90% is lost as HEAT
41 Biomass PyramidShows the amount of living organic matter at each trophic levelMost biomass??Base (bottom) of the pyramid
42 Pyramid of NumbersShows the relative number of individuals at each trophic level
43 SuccessionSuccession: a gradual process of change and replacement of populations in a community.1. Primary Succession: The development of plant communities in an area that has never supported life. In an area that contains no Soilexamples: bare rock, lava flow or glaciers.Pioneer organisms: the first organisms to inhabit a given location(example: lichens on bare rock)2. Secondary Succession: is the change of species that follows disruption of an existing community. In an area that contain soilExample: created by natural disasters or human activityEcosystems tend to change until a climax community is formed.
44 Climax CommunityClimax community: a community that has reach a stable state.populations remain stable andexist in balance with each otherand their environmentecosystems may reach apoint of stability that can last forhundreds or thousands of years
45 Succession ExampleIf the PHS football field is not mowed, would it be primary or secondary succession?
46 BiomesBiome: a large region characterized by a specific type of climate & certain plant and animal communities.A certain biome may exist in more than one location on earth.Biomes are terrestrial (dry) or aquatic (wet)Dependent on:TemperatureSolar radiationPrecipitation
47 Habitat & Niche Habitat is the place a plant or animal lives Niche is an organism’s role in life
48 BiodiversityBiodiversity: the differences in living things in an ecosystemIncreased biodiversity increases the stabilityof an ecosystem.2. Increased biodiversity increases the chance that at least some living things will survive.
49 High Biodiversity vs. Low Biodiversity Which one has the most Biodiversity