2What is ecology?Ecology- the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environments, focusing on energy transfer.What do you think about when I say ecology? Recycling? Acid rain?
3The environment is made up of two factors: Biotic factors- all living organisms inhabiting the EarthAbiotic factors- nonliving parts of the environment (i.e. temperature, soil, light, moisture, air currents)When I say environment you think what—weather. Well Ok but it it much more than that
4The lowest level of organization Organism- any unicellular or multicellular form exhibiting all of the characteristics of life, an individual plant or animal.The lowest level of organizationThe lowest level is the individual. The organism. Here we see a salmon and a bear as examples of organisms. REMINDER: organisms die, species go extint
5Population-a group of organisms of one species living in the same place at the same time that interbreed and compete with each other for resources (ex. food, mates, shelter)The next level is a population. A population consists of a single species living together and breeding. Give me an example of a population. Ex. large mouth bass living in Lake Meade. Beetles living under the same log. Here we have salmon spwning and two bears fishing.
6Community- several interacting populations that inhabit a common environment and are interdependent, includes only biotic factors.Next level is a community which is several populations living together and depending on each other. What does interdependent mean? An example of a community is shown here with the bear and the salmon. They both live in a common environment and the bear needs the fish for food? How does the salmon need the bear?
7Ecosystem- populations in a community and the abiotic factors with which they interact (ex. marine, terrestrial)
8The highest level of organization Biosphere- life supporting portions of Earth composed of air, land, fresh water, and salt water.The highest level of organizationLets review. Organisms make up populations, populations make up communities, communities and abiotic factors make up ecosystems, and all of the ecosystems make up the biosphere. From one to many and each depending on the other.
9Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Organism Just like with classification, ecology is hierarchal. Each level builds on itself and they fit together like nesting boxes.PopulationOrganism
10Odum - Fundamentals of Ecology “The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does. By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organism's ‘address’, and the niche is its ‘profession’, biologically speaking.”Odum - Fundamentals of EcologyYou don’t have to write this down!!
11Habitat vs. NicheNiche - the role a species plays in a community (job)Habitat- the place in which an organism lives out its life (address)Although several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
12Habitat vs. NicheA niche is determined by the tolerance limitations of an organism, or a limiting factor.Limiting factor- any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence of organisms in a specific environment.Although several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
13Habitat vs. Niche Examples of limiting factors- Amount of water Amount of foodTemperatureAlthough several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
14Feeding Relationships There are 3 main types of feeding relationships1. Producer- Consumer2. Predator- Prey3. Parasite- HostHow do they trap the sun’s energy? Through what process? What is that process similar to in animal cells?
15Feeding Relationships Producer- all autotrophs (plants), they trap energy from the sunBottom of the food chainHow do they trap the sun’s energy? Through what process? What is that process similar to in animal cells?
16Feeding Relationships Consumer- all heterotrophs: they ingest food containing the sun’s energyHerbivoresCarnivoresOmnivoresDecomposersEnergy moves up the food chain through the producer/consumer relationship.
17Feeding Relationships Consumer-HerbivoresEat plantsPrimary consumersHerbivores are the 1st step up the food chain, they eat the producers
18Feeding Relationships Consumer-Carnivores-eat meatPredatorsHunt animals forfood.Can be secondary,tertiary, orquaternaryconsumersScavengers are a type of carnivore that eat dead animals, or carrion. Vultures, hyenas, crabs, deep sea fish-talk about distance from the sun and must eat the dead things that sink to the bottom, bottom feeders
19Feeding Relationships Consumer- Carnivores- eat meatScavengersFeed on carrion,dead animalsScavengers are a type of carnivore that eat dead animals, or carrion. Vultures, hyenas, crabs, deep sea fish-talk about distance from the sun and must eat the dead things that sink to the bottom, bottom feeders
20Feeding Relationships Consumer- Omnivores -eat both plantsand animalsHumans and bears are omnivores but a large and important subset of omnivores are the decomposers. They breakdown dead producers and release the energy back into circulation.
21Feeding Relationships Consumer- DecomposersBreakdown the complex compounds of dead and decaying plants and animals into simpler molecules that can be absorbedHumans and bears are omnivores but a large and important subset of omnivores are the decomposers. They breakdown dead producers and release the energy back into circulation.
22Symbiotic Relationships Symbiosis- two species living together3 Types of symbiosis:1. Commensalism2. Parasitism3. MutualismCleaning shrimp
23Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism-one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helpedEx. orchids on a treeEpiphytes: A plant, such as a tropical orchid or a bromeliad, that grows on another plant upon which it depends for mechanical support but not for nutrients. Also called aerophyte, air plant.
24Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism-one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helpedEx. polar bears and cyanobacteriaYou can see here that this polar bear is no longer white.
25Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism-one species benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed (host)Parasite-Host relationship
27Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism-beneficial to both speciesEx. cleaning birds and cleaner shrimpThe Egyptian plover takes insects from the backs of buffaloes, giraffes and rhinos. The plover has also been observed taking leeches from the open mouths of crocodiles! In this association the plover receives a supply of food and the other animal rids itself of unwelcome pests
28Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism-beneficial to both speciesEx. lichenThe Egyptian plover takes insects from the backs of buffaloes, giraffes and rhinos. The plover has also been observed taking leeches from the open mouths of crocodiles! In this association the plover receives a supply of food and the other animal rids itself of unwelcome pests
29= 1 species Type of relationship Species harmed Species benefits Species neutralCommensalismParasitismMutualism= 1 species
30Trophic LevelsEach link in a food chain is known as a trophic level.Trophic levels represent a feeding step in the transfer of energy and matter in an ecosystem.
31Trophic LevelsBiomass- the amount of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a habitat.As you move up a food chain, both available energy and biomass decrease.Energy is transferred upwards but is diminished with each transfer.
32E N R G Y Trophic Levels Producers- Autotrophs Tertiary consumers- top carnivoresSecondary consumers-small carnivoresPrimary consumers- HerbivoresProducers- Autotrophs
36Trophic LevelsFood web- shows all possible feeding relationships in a community at each trophic levelRepresents a network of interconnected food chains
37Food chain Food web(just 1 path of energy) (all possible energy paths)
38Cycling maintains homeostasis (balance) in the environment. Nutrient CyclesCycling maintains homeostasis (balance) in the environment.3 cycles to investigate:1. Water cycle2. Carbon cycle3. Nitrogen cycle
39Evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation Water cycle-Evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation
43Nitrogen cycle-Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) makes up nearly 78%-80% of air.Organisms can not use it in that form.Lightning and bacteria convert nitrogen into usable forms.
44Nitrogen cycle-Only in certain bacteria and industrial technologies can fix nitrogen.Nitrogen fixation-convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonium (NH4+) which can be used to make organic compounds like amino acids.N2 NH4+
45Nitrogen-fixing bacteria: Nitrogen cycle-Nitrogen-fixing bacteria:Some live in a symbiotic relationship with plants of the legume family (e.g., soybeans, clover, peanuts).
46Nitrogen cycle-Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria live free in the soil.Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are essential to maintaining the fertility of semi-aquatic environments like rice paddies.
48This is called biological magnification Toxins in food chains-While energy decreases as it moves up the food chain, toxins increase in potency.This is called biological magnificationEx: DDT & Bald Eagles