4East India Company Dominates British East India Company rules India until the 1850s.Company has its own army led by British officersArmy is staffed by sepoys—Indian soldiers.Flag of the British East India Company (right); A painting showing a sowar (sepoy), 6th Madras Light Cavalry of British India. Circa 1845 (below)
5Britain’s Jewel in the Crown” India is Britain’s most valuable colony, or “jewel in the crown.”Forced to produce raw materials for British manufacturingAlso forced to buy British goods
6British Transport Trade Goods Railroads move cash crops and goods fasterTrade in specific crops is tied to international events
7Impact of ColonialismBritish hold much of political and economic powerCash crops result in loss of self-sufficiency and cause famineIndian life disrupted by missionaries and racist attitudesBritish modernize India’s economy, improve public health
9Sepoy Mutiny: Underlying and Immediate Causes Underlying CausesReligious Frictions: Some British officers actively attempted to convert the sepoys to Christianity although the British East India Company discouraged it. The sepoys resented imposing Christianity and Christian laws in India.Doctrine of the Lapse: The Company automatically seized land from a feudal leader who died without leaving an heir.Unfair justice system toward Indians. British officers accused of crimes against Indians were granted multiple appeals and advantages when being tried.High Caste Sepoys: The Bengal Army of sepoys were recruited from a higher caste of Indians. Therefore, if the high caste sepoys were considered to be "polluted", they would have to expend considerable sums of money on ritual purification before being accepted back into society.Immediate CauseThe Enfield Rifle: It required the solder to bite the cartridge and hold the ball in his mouth when loading the rifle. The belief that the cartridge was lubricated with animal fat (either pork or beef) offended both Muslims and Hindus.
10The old gun: an India pattern smoothbore Brown Bess Musket The old gun: an India pattern smoothbore Brown Bess Musket. Notice this is a flintlock musket.1853 Enfield Rifle-Musket. Notice this gun uses a percussion cap rather than a flint lock.
11Sepoy MutinySepoys refuse to use cartridges of new rifles for religious reasons.Many Sepoys are jailed; others start the Sepoy Mutiny against the BritishMany Indians, especially Sikhs, remain loyal to the BritishBritish put down the rebellion and take direct command of India.
12Bollywood Film— Mangal Pandey: The Rising Mangal Pandey: The Rising is an Indian movie based on the life of Mangal Pandey, an Indian soldier who is known for his role in the Indian Mutiny of 1857.In March of 1857 Pandey gave a speech to his fellow sepoys encouraging them to mutiny. He then attacked a British officer. He was executed for these actions the following month. In his defense he claimed he did not know what he was doing, admitting he was under the influence of cannabis and opium.
13The Rising, a Bollywood film tells the story from the Indian side.
19Raj—refers to British rule after India came under the British crown. The British RajRaj—refers to British rule after India came under the British crown.Uprising increases distrust between British and Indians.
20Nationalism Surfaces in India Calls for ReformsIn 1800s, Ram Mohun Roy leads modernization movementMany Indians adopt western ways and call for social reformsIndians resent being second- class citizens in their own country.
21Nationalism Surfaces in India Nationalist Groups FormIndian National Congress and Muslim League formNationalists angered by partition of Bengal and the pressure forces Britain to divide it differently