2 Country Bio･ Population: 1.3 Billion (UN census, 2004)･ Territory: 3.7 million square miles (a bit larger than the U.S.)･ Year of Independence: 221 B.C.･ Year of Current Constitution: 1982･ Language: Mandarin (official language), Cantonese, Shanghaiese, other dialects, some minority languages･ Religion: Daoism, Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1%. Note: Officially Atheist.
3 Imperial ChinaChinese civilization emerged more than six thousand years ago.Imperial China became the longest-lived major political system in world history (ruled for more than 2000 years until the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911)Governed by an emperor and a merit-based bureaucracy.Imperial China was based on the political philosophy of ﾒConfucianismﾓ.
4 Fall of the Imperial China The Qing dynasty could not maintain territorial integrity (domestic rebellion, foreign economic and military encroachment)Began to crumble in mid-19thcentury.The Republic founded in 1912 could not restore order, collapsed in a few years.Regional warlords with personal armies competed for control of the territory.four decades of upheaval and continuous warfare.
5 China at the beginning of the 1900s? China’s trade, resources and economy was under foreign control at the beginning of the 1900s.
6 Different views of the Chinese who wanted to regain control of their country? A.) Some Chinese believed that China’s greatness lay in its traditional ways. They feared change.B.) Others believed that modernization and nationalism was key to China’s survival. They wanted to build a strong military, modern factories and reform education.China’s Last Emperor
7 the Chinese Nationalist Party that pushed for modernization and nationalization- Kuomintang(Kwoh-mihn-TANG)the leader of the Nationalist Party?Sun Yixian (Soon yee-shyahn)Considered the Father of Modern China
8 Sun Yixian’s background and plans Successful or Not-* Yixian, a trained physician, spent time in the U.S. and was influenced by the west. * Leader of the Kuomintang-became president of the Republic of China.Promoted the 3 Principles –1. nationalism, end of foreign control2. people’s rights guaranteed, democracy3. livelihood, economic growth * Led overthrow of Qing Dynasty- * Couldn’t secure national unity, lacked authority and military support-
9 Yuan Shikai’s background and plans for the future of China ? Background- Events* Yixian turned over the presidency of China to Shikai, a powerful military general. * Shikai betrayed democratic principles of the revolution when he ruled as a military dictator. * Betrayal led to chaos and civil war. * Shikai dies in * Death led to continuous chaos especially between Kuomintang and Warlords- * Peasants suffered dramatically-
10 World War I, Effects* As an Allied power, China declared war on Germany. * After WWI, China hoped that control of China would be returned to the Chinese.* European leaders gave territories and privileges that once belonged to Germany to Japan. * Anger led to outrage of the west & Japanese boycotts- * Demonstrations led to May Fourth Movement and turned many against Sun and western democracy in favor of Lenin’s communism- * Chinese had a commitment of establishing a strong China
11 8. How was Mao Zedong able to become China’s greatest revolutionary leader? * Mao was an educator/librarian that supported the intellectuals against western ideals after WWI and the Treaty of Versailles.* Mao was a founders of the Communist Party in China. * Mao develops his own brand of communism and befriends Lenin of Russia.* Mao allies the Kuomintang Nationalists & Communists for a common goal * Mao’s brand of communism is especially attractive to Chinese peasants that were the majority of the populationBackground-Plan-Mao Zedong
12 9. What caused the Kuomintang and the Communists to clash 9. What caused the Kuomintang and the Communists to clash? What were their differences?* After Sun dies- Jiang Jieshi leads the Kuomingtang* Jiang, the son of a middle class banker differs over Communist economic ideas – no socialism Supported by the middle class, not peasantsJiang becomes president of Nationalist Republic of China. China is recognized by US and Britain as a new nation* Jiang’s government is corrupt & less democratic* Jiang turns against the Communists and many are slaughtered in Shanghai* Civil War erupts after the massacre and leads The Communists on the Long MarchJiang Jieshi or Chiang Kai-shek
13 May Fourth Movement -1919 Tiananmen Square Mao and Jiang before the clash of idealsMao addressing the people
14 10. Describe the Long March of the Communists. * The Long March began after the massacre of communists in Shanghai. * Mao and his followers started a 6,000 miles journey through China, keeping one step ahead the of the Nationalists. * Along the journey, Mao increased the size of his army and support among the peasants. Many deaths- * While the civil war raged in China, the Japanese invaded Manchuria in 1937.
16 11. Why was the Chinese Civil War temporarily suspended? Japanese FlagChinese soldiers on the march!* In 1937, the Japanese invade China and thousands of Chinese are killed.* By 1938, Japan controls large areas of China.Jiang’s Nationalists and Mao’s Communists create an uneasy truce to fight the Japanese threat* The fighting and invasion of China brings the onset of World War IIAfter Japanese bombing, a Chinese baby is left alone on the tracks. -Life Magazine