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A Survey of Indian Literature Antiquity Through the Middle Ages.

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Presentation on theme: "A Survey of Indian Literature Antiquity Through the Middle Ages."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Survey of Indian Literature Antiquity Through the Middle Ages

2 Overview Early Epics Vedas Upanishads Poetry Middle Ages Puranas Poetry

3 Sanskrit Introduced by Aryans Classic language of India

4 Epics Mahabharata (Great Deeds of the Bharata Clan) Ramayana (Song of Prince Rama) Oral poems Depicted tribal wars between Aryan families Written down in 8 th century BCE Comparable to Iliad and Odyssey

5 Vedas Translates to “Sacred Knowledge” Collection of: Prayers Sacrificial formulae Hymns 1500-500 BCE Oral, then written Blends Indus and Aryan folk lore Mark beginning of scientific inquiry in India Teach worship through prayer and sacrifice

6 Upanishads 250 prose commentaries on the Vedas Reach enlightenment through meditation Instruct individual on death and rebirth No guidelines, dogma, or deity Laying ground for Hinduism.

7 Upanishads Establishes the concept of Brahman & Atman (self) Atman: “soundless, formless, intangible, undying, tasteless, odorless, without beginning, without end, eternal, immutable, and beyond nature” Seeks to be one with Brahman Achieve Nirvana when unit

8 Early poetry Bhagavad-Gita (Song of God) Conversation between Arjuna (warrior hero) & Krishna (incarnation of Vishnu & Divine manifestation of Brahman) Look for: Statement of resignation Hindu thought

9 Medieval Literature

10 Puranas Translates to “Old Stories” Preserved myths of Hindu Gods Oral until 5 th Century Vishnu Purana “In the embrace of his beloved a man forgets the whole world— everything both within and without” Different than Western literature of the time?

11 Reading 2.24 – The Treasury of Well-Turned Verse 1. List five characteristics of the poetry: 2. Compare this poetry to: 1. Egyptian 2. Greek 3. Roman Medieval Indian Poetry

12 Secular Spoken, not sung No rhyme Word play 50 different Sanskrit words for Lotus Literature devices: Alliteration Repetition of initial sounds in successive words Assonance Similarity between vowel sounds

13 Medieval Indian Poetry Rules: 1. Describe general and universal conditions 2. Exhibit a single characteristic sentiment anger, courage, etc 3. Grief cannot dominate poem

14 Medieval Indian Poetry Oh yeah, highly erotic Buddhist monk Vidyakara wrote down poems in 11 th Century The Treasury of Well- Turned Verse

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