Presentation on theme: "Hinduism a mix of Aryan and Indus Valley beliefs – no single founder encourages truth, respect for all life, and detachment from the material world."— Presentation transcript:
Hinduism a mix of Aryan and Indus Valley beliefs – no single founder encourages truth, respect for all life, and detachment from the material world People who seek material riches and personal pleasure achieve only pain, suffering and the separation of their soul from the universal soul.
Brahman - the single supreme force that unites everything in the universe. One god who assumes many forms. The many gods of Hinduism each symbolize a different aspect of Brahman. Ancient proverb: “God is one, but wise people know it by many names.”
Main Hindu Gods Brahma - the Creator Vishnu - the Preserver Shiva - the Destroyer Shakti - wife of Shiva: both kind and cruel; a creator and destroyer.
Om ~ Sacred Symbol Sacred Text ~ Vedas & Upanishads
Jainism An offshoot of Hinduism founded by Mahavira around 500 BCE. It emphasizes ahimsa, meditation, and self-denial.
Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama born about 566 BCE to a life of luxury - a high-ranking family of the Kshatriya caste led a sheltered life of luxury in his father’s palace to prevent him from fulfilling the prophecy that he would become a wandering holy man married and had a son discovered human suffering beyond the palace walls: a sick person, and old person, and a dead body
age 29, he left the palace and wandered for years seeking wisdom to discover “the realm of life where there is neither suffering nor death” wandered for years seeking answers from Hindu scholars and holy men fasted until he became ill while meditating under a sacred tree he attained enlightenment
People must follow a middle way between a life devoted to pleasure and one based on harsh self-denial. He set out to reform Hinduism, not to create a new religion. He rejected the priests, formal rituals, caste system, and many gods of Hinduism. He encouraged enlightenment through meditation. He forbid followers to worship him.
Two Schools of Buddhism After Buddha’s death, his teachings spread throughout India and into Asia. Theravada - spread to Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia closely followed Buddha’s teachings required a life devoted to spiritual work Mahayana - spread to China, Tibet, Korea, and Japan worshipped Buddha as a god
In India, Buddhism was eventually absorbed into Hinduism. Buddha became another Hindu god. Sacred Text ~ Tripitaka (Three Baskets of Wisdom)
Terms to Know moksha - union with brahman in Hinduism. reincarnation - rebirth of the soul in another bodily form. This is necessary because most people cannot achieve moksha in one lifetime. With reincarnation you can work toward moksha over many lifetimes.
More Terms to Know karma - the actions of a person’s life that affect his or her fate in the next life. The endless cycle of life and rebirth is symbolized by the wheel in Indian art. dharma - the religious and moral duties of a person. Just as the god Krishna told Arjuna in the Bhagavad- Gita, “For their is more joy in doing one’s duty badly than in doing another man’s duty well.” The concepts of karma and dharma have supported the caste system.
Even More Terms to Know ahimsa - nonviolence. nirvana - union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth in Buddhist. stupa - large dome- shaped shrines that housed the sacred remains of the Buddha of other holy people. They are usually ringed with enclosed walkways where Buddhist monks could walk slowly and chant their prayers.
Four Noble Truths 1. All life is suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2. The cause of suffering is the desire for things that are really illusions, such as riches, power, and long life. 3. The only cure for suffering is to overcome desire. 4. The way to overcome desire is to follow the Eightfold Path.