2 Compare and contrast the religion of Hinduism with Buddhism. Learning ObjectivesLearning ObjectivesIdentify these Hindu terms: Brahman, Atman, karma, dharma, guru, yoga, reincarnation and moksha.Identify key Hindu texts: the Vedas, the Upanishads and the Bhagavad-Gita.Explore the belief systems of Buddhism including : nirvana, 4 Noble Truths, the Eightfold Path to Enlightenment, and the life and teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, (Buddha).Compare and contrast the religion of Hinduism with Buddhism.The most helpful information for me came from the web page –
3 Religions in IndiaReligions in IndiaThe dominant religion in India is Hinduism which was brought in by the original Aryan invaders.
4 Indo European and Aryan Invaders Indo European and Aryan Invaders Aryans brought with them a strong oral tradition, and religion.This became the foundation for the religion of Hinduism.VedasThe term yoga is sanskrit for the word discipline. Many Hindus have claimed that this is easily the first and the oldest religion in world history. Some have dated the oral tradition of Hinduism back 8,000 years ago. However, many scholars claim that the oldest verifiable dates are around 1500 BC, but they agree that the oral tradition does indeed go back farther than this recorded date. The Vedas were passed down orally from teacher to disciple for many centuries before being written down. The Vedas are also considered to be the world’s first scripture.
5 No human founder. Believe that “All religions are a path to God.” HinduismHinduismNo human founder. Believe that “All religions are a path to God.”No set dogma or rules.A collective, universal, God.The “Ways of Knowledge” are key. They seek to understand through reason and meditation. Hindus simply absorb other religions.
6 Hindus believe the Ganges river is the holiest of rivers. HinduismHinduismHindus believe the Ganges river is the holiest of rivers.The river is worshipped as a goddess. Prayers are said, and flowers are floated down river.Hindus believe the Ganges river fell from heaven down to earth. They also cremate their dead because they believe that fire purifies the body. Many ask that their ashes be spread along the banks of the Ganges river.
7 Krishna first reveals the Vedic knowledge to Brahma. HinduismHinduismA blend of Aryan traditions, and a collection of hymns and rituals called the Vedas, form the backbone of this religion.The 4 Vedas are the primary Hindu texts.The word Veda in sanskrit means Knowledge or Truth. It is also the rough equivalent of the English word for wisdom. The picture came from this educational website:Krishna first reveals the Vedic knowledge to Brahma.
8 Hindu Sacred Texts Hindu Sacred Texts The Vedas contain hymns, incantations, and rituals from ancient India.They tell us about everyday life in India 4,000 years ago.They are the oldest texts in the world.Each of the four Vedas are divided into four sections:The Samhitas- contain the mantras and hymnsThe Brahmanas – the ritualistic teachingsThe Aranyakas – the meditational sectionThe Upanishads – the mystic and philosophical section, also known as the Vedanta, or the end of the Vedas, implying the culmination of Vedic thought; they have exerted the most active influence on Hindu thought.
9 Hinduism Hinduism Other Key Texts include: The Upanishads. The Laws of Manu – Manu was the 1st man of the Hindus, sort of like Adam.This is a collection of laws attributed to Manu.From reading some of these passages, it looks as though much of the caste system came from this set of laws.
10 Check for Understanding Check for Understanding Which two religions began in India?What is the holiest of rivers to the Hindus?Is there a human founder for Hinduism?What are the primary scriptures or religious texts of the Hindus?Who was the “Hindu Adam?”
11 Hindu Epic Poems Hindu Epic Poems There are 2 Epic Poems, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.These are the oldest and the longest poems in the history of the world.
12 HinduismHinduismThe Bhagavad-Gita tells of ancient warriors and includes a dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna.This text contains the philosophies of the Hindu faith: selflessness, duty, devotion, and meditation.The Mahabarata is the single longest poem in the world. It contains over 106,000 verses. In it is the story of a great war between two cousins, the Pandavas, and Kauravas. The poem also featured the god Krishna, who gives advice to one of the Pandavas, Arjuna. The poem also reflected a blending of the Aryan culture with the local dasas.
13 Hindu Sacred Texts Hindu Sacred Texts The Vedas The Upanishads The Laws of ManuThe MahabharataThe RamayanaThe Bhagavad-GitaCollectively, these works are the Hindus’ sacred texts.Each of the four Vedas are divided into four sections:The Samhitas- contain the mantras and hymnsThe Brahmanas – the ritualistic teachingsThe Aranyakas – the meditational sectionThe Upanishads – the mystic and philosophical section, also known as the Vedanta, or the end of the Vedas, implying the culmination of Vedic thought; they have exerted the most active influence on Hindu thought.
14 Hindu Gods Hindu Gods The top gods and goddesses of the Hindus are: 1.Brahman – the creator of the Universe and the god of wisdom.It was said that he was born from a lotus blossom.Brahma is considered the mystical creator, the supreme presence, or God. Many Hindus believe that all of the other gods originate from him. He is depicted with four faces, showing that he can see to the 4 corners of the universe. He usually holds a sacrificial ladle, a necklace of prayer beads, and a jar of water from the Ganges river.
15 Hinduism Hinduism 2.Vishnu – the Preserver. He descends to earth in human or animal form, and brings balance between good and evil.Many Hindu heroes are believed to have been the incarnate form of Vishnu.“Whenever the Sacred Law fails, and evil raises its head, I (Vishnu) take embodied birth. To guard the righteous, to root out sinners, and to establish Sacred Law. I am born from age to age.” – Excerpt from the Bhagavad-Gita. Many Hindus speak of AVATARS or ten incarnations that are linked to Vishnu.
16 HinduismHinduism3.Shiva – the Destroyer or Purifier.Who destroys the world when it is in chaos or ungodly.He is the Lord of the Dance and also the lord of beasts.When Shiva is the Lord of the Dance, he dances in a halo of fire representing the cycle of birth and death. As he dances, he crushes the demon of ignorance. In his right hand, he keeps rhythm beating a drum, while in his left hand he holds the flame of destruction, purification and renewal. His other hands are in a position of blessing or refuge. Around his arms and neck he wars deadly snakes. The snakes symbolize Shiva’s power over evil forces, while its ability to shed its skin makes it a symbol of fertility as well. He is a symbol of sexual power and union. He wears a female earring on his left ear and a male one on his right. He is depicted as both man and woman at times.
17 Shiva as Lord of the Dance. HinduismHinduismShiva as the Lord of the Dance.Halo of fire represents the cycle of birth and death.He crushes the demon of ignorance, and holds the flame of destruction.When Shiva is the Lord of the Dance, he dances in a halo of fire representing the cycle of birth and death. As he dances, he crushes the demon of ignorance. In his right hand, he keeps rhythm beating a drum, while in his left hand he holds the flame of destruction, purification and renewal. His other hands are in a position of blessing or refuge. Around his arms and neck he wars deadly snakes. The snakes symbolize Shiva’s power over evil forces, while its ability to shed its skin makes it a symbol of fertility as well. He is a symbol of sexual power and union. He wears a female earring on his left ear and a male one on his right. He is depicted as both man and woman at times.Shiva as Lord of the Dance.
18 Hindu GodsHindu GodsList the top 3 Hindu gods here…1.2.3.
19 Check for Understanding Check for Understanding What is unique about the epic poems, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana?Who is dialoging in the Bhagavad-Gita?List a Hindu value taught in the Bhagavad-Gita.Who are the top 3 Hindu gods?Which one is the “Lord of the Dance?”
20 HinduismHinduismMany scholars view this religion as polytheistic, but Hindus regard themselves as monotheistic.The early Vedas speak of One god, and that all gods “Strive towards the One.”
21 Hindu Symbols and Terms Hindu Symbols and Terms Guru – a spiritual master, a teacher, a holy man.Yoga – “to yoke” people are to have discipline in their lives. They are able to achieve this discipline by meditating and keeping rituals.Yoga teacher.
22 The Om symbol above, is both written and spoken. HinduismHinduismKey Symbols:The Om or Aum- it is the main symbol for Hindus.Om reflects the power responsible for the creation, development and destruction of the universe.The Om or Aum is the principal symbol of Hinduism. It is both a visual and an oral representation of Brahmin, or God. This mark has another name, Pravana, which means “that by which God is effectively praised,” and “that which is ever new.” Hindus repeat the word Om in order to transcend their individual thoughts and merge with God. Om is comprised of three letters – a – representing the beginning, u- meaning to develop or progress, and m-meaning dissolution.The Om symbol above, is both written and spoken.
23 The Swasti- or Swastika HinduismHinduismThe swastika – ancient symbol for good fortune and protection.It also represents the eternal wheel of life.The Nazi’s reversed this symbol many centuries later.It is not uncommon to find these markings on homes and businesses in India, because the people believe that it will protect them against evil spirits and natural disasters.The Swasti- or Swastika
24 HinduismHinduismThe Lotus Bud – born in water, symbolizing the birth of the universe.It is a symbol of the sun, and purity and fertility.It is also the chosen seat of the gods.The Lotus Bud
25 HinduismHinduismThe cow is sacred to all Hindus. An offspring of the celestial cow created by Krishna from his own body.Products of the cow are used in rituals of atonement.Another Hindu myth says the cow was born of the churning of the oceans. Also, the Earth often approaches God in the form of a cow.The Sacred Cow
26 Check for Understanding Check for Understanding What is a guru?What does yoga mean?What is the primary Hindu symbol?What did the swastika originally mean?Which animal is sacred to the Hindus?
27 The creator god, Brahman. HinduismHinduismKey Vocabulary:Atman – the innermost self, or soul, tries to unite with the ultimate truth, Brahman.To unite with the universal soul, one must meditate and have good karma.The creator god, Brahman.
28 Hinduism Hinduism Dharma – the ultimate moral balance of things. There is a divine order in nature and in human lives.One has a responsibility to maintain that balance, or dharma.This is the rough equivalent of believing that you have a moral responsibility to perform your job and your obligations well or with honor.
29 HinduismHinduismKarma – “Deed or action.” The combined effect of a person’s actions over their life time.Whatever actions one takes, will bring them good or bad consequences in this life or the next.Called the “boomerang” effect, or “what goes around comes around.” This is often what keeps the poorest of caste members hopeful…perhaps in the next life, they will be rewarded. This philosophy is used to explain why bad things happen to seemingly good people. It is also used as an excuse for not aiding the poor or disabled.
30 The cycle of reincarnation. HinduismHinduismReincarnation – “Samsara” meaning cycle of births and deaths.A person’s next birth (and status), are determined by their karma in a previous life.The cycle of reincarnation.
31 HinduismHinduismThe cycle of reincarnation may include a person’s next life is that of an animal or insect.
32 Hinduism Hinduism Atman is achieved by doing three things: Good Dharma and Karma- Works, or rituals.The way of knowledge – reflection and meditation.The way of devotion –to the god you choose to follow.Gsarawt
33 The cycle of reincarnation or rebirth. HinduismHinduismA person’s soul is reincarnated over and over until the soul finally reaches a state of Moksha.Moksha - the soul has joined the Universal soul, or Brahman.The cycle of reincarnation or rebirth.
34 Meditation to achieve moksha. HinduismHinduismMoksha means that the soul is freed from suffering, and earthly desires.Once moksha is achieved, the soul is no longer reincarnated. It is released into the universal soul.Meditation to achieve moksha.
35 Check for Understanding Check for Understanding What is the Hindu term for a person’s soul?This is the ultimate moral balance…Define karma.Define reincarnation or samsara.If a Hindu’s soul has achieved this, they are no longer reincarnated….