2 Objectives WHI.4 The student will be able to: Essential Questions Describe the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of HinduismDescribe the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of BuddhismEssential QuestionsWhat are the beliefs of the Hindu religion?How did Hinduism influence Indian society and culture?What are the beliefs of Buddhism?How did Buddhism spread?
4 Origins Aryan tribes from Central Asia invaded India around 1400 B.C. brought Indo-European language and religionAryans first settled in Punjab (Northern India)Migrated later to Ganges River ValleyNo specific founder, no single theology, no agreement on originsWord Hinduism sixth century B.C. to refer to people living in the areaHinduism existed long before recorded historyEarliest surviving documents written in 1500 B.C.E.Objects related to Hinduism date back to 2500 B.C.E.
5 The Vedas Hindu’s prefer term Vedic Veda are Vedic text that provide the only written source for understanding religious life in ancient IndiaConsidered sacred writingsVedas compromised of 1,000 hymns followed by chants and prose worksOver time only highly-trained priest could perform the complicated Vedic rituals
6 Sacred Writings Upanishads Bhagavad-Gita Record wisdom of Hindu teachers and sages as far back at 1000 B.C.E.Nature of morality and eternal lifeTransmigration of soulsCausality in creationHow to achieve moksha – a perfect understanding of all thingsBhagavad-GitaPart of the Mahabharata- one of the longest books in the worldDialogue between Arjuna (hero) and KrishnaIncredibly important cultural text
7 Five Basic Beliefs Karma One God that takes multiple forms Brahman Knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequencesthe sum of good and bad actions are carried from one life to the nextReincarnationRebirth based upon your karmaReincarnation ends when you reach MokshaLiberation of the soulOne God that takes multiple formsBrahmanSupreme Godeverything is part of Brahmanthe goal in life is to unite atman with BrahmanDharmasacred dutyindividual dharma is determined by personality, age, sex, and social classfollowing dharma promotes harmony
8 Practices Rituals Worship called Puja Marriage: match must be approved by both parents, usually arranged, horoscopes drawn up, bride’s family pays dowryDeath: body cremated, body not required after death due to reincarnationWorship called PujaWorship often takes place in homeNo particular day or time
11 Hinduism and Society Hinduism spread along major trade routes Karma and reincarnation reinforced caste systemDominated every person’s lifeDeterminedHow one atePersonal cleanlinessWho one could be friends withHow one dressedHinduism spread along major trade routes
12 Buddhism Around 500’s B.C.E. Founder Siddhartha Gautama The Buddha or “Enlightened One”
13 Story of the Buddha At first followed the ascetics Siddhartha came from a kingdom in HimalayasSon of a ruling family, born 563 B.C.Raised in luxuryAt 16 married a princessHad everythingIn late 20’s became aware of illness, sickness, death and old ageGave up his royal life to find the true meaning of lifeAt first followed the asceticsBut he almost died of starvation!Turned to meditatingReached “Enlightenment”Spent his life preachingHis teachings became basis of Buddhism
14 Principles of Buddhism Four Noble TruthsOrdinary life is sufferingThis suffering is caused by our desire to satisfy ourselvesThe way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goalsThe way to end desire is to follow the middle path
15 Eightfold Path Right Views: knowledge of the 4 Noble Truths Right Aspirations: discard desire and avoid hurting othersRight Speech: telling the truthRight Conduct: not stealing or cheatingRight Livelihood: earning a living in a way that does not harm or cause bloodshed to othersRight Effort: thinking positivelyRight Mindfulness: being aware of the effects of thoughts and actionsRight Meditation: allowing a peaceful state of mind
17 Buddhism in India Missionaries spread Buddhism throughout India Asoka’s missionaries and their writings spread Buddhism from India to China and other parts of AsiaHinduism dominated IndiaMost widespread religion in East AsiaThanks to Asoka
18 Revisit Objectives WHI.4 The student will be able to:Describe the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of HinduismDescribe the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of BuddhismEssential QuestionsWhat are the beliefs of the Hindu religion?How did Hinduism influence Indian society and culture?What are the beliefs of Buddhism?How did Buddhism spread?