Presentation on theme: "Daily Question: How did Hinduism originate and develop? What are the central teachings of Hinduism, and why did they survive to modern day? Warm-up Question:"— Presentation transcript:
Daily Question: How did Hinduism originate and develop? What are the central teachings of Hinduism, and why did they survive to modern day? Warm-up Question: What do you see in the picture? What do you think about what you see? What questions do you have about the picture?
No one person founded Hinduism. It developed over time from ancient Indian traditions. One of the oldest religions in the world. World’s third largest religion (after Christianity and Islam) with 837 million followers (13% of the world’s population). The religions is found predominantly in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Fiji and Bali. With 1.1 million Hindus in the U.S.
Hinduism began on the subcontinent of India. 82% of people in India currently identify as Hindu.
Around 2000 B.C.E., nomadic people speaking Indo- European languages migrated to northern India along the banks of the Indus River. These nomads, sometimes called Aryans, mixed with the native people. The Aryans brought to India their gods and rituals, some of which became a part of Hinduism. Other parts of Hinduism are based in local cultural traditions. These traditions were passed down orally until India had a written form for Sanskrit.
Hinduism came from the Vedic religion, named for early Indian texts. The Vedas are a collection of sacred texts, including verses, hymns, prayers, and teachings composed in Sanskrit (Veda is Sanskrit for knowledge). Vedic rituals and sacrifices honored a number of deities (gods and goddesses) associated with nature and social order. A class of priests and religious scholars, called Brahmins, grew increasingly important because they were responsible for correctly interpreting the Vedas and performing the rituals. These Brahmins later became a class in India. The Vedic religions was also called Brahmanism, but was not called Hinduism until much later. Aspects of Hinduism differ from place to place, but the Vedas is accepted as a sacred text with the basic beliefs of the religion.
Believe in the universal soul or God (Brahman), as the only reality who is present in all things. Brahman has no form, and is eternal. Brahman is creator, preserver and transformer of everything. Brahman appears in the human spirit as Atman, or the soul.
Polytheism? Many believe that Hindus worship many gods, but there is really one eternal god (Brahman). The other gods are different aspects of the Brahman.
Three principal gods: Brahma: creates the universe Vishnu: preserves the universe Shiva: destroys the universe. Hindu Gods take many forms, called Avatars. An Avatar is the representation of a Hindu god or goddess in human or animal form.
Born from a golden egg Created Earth and everything on it Not as widely worshiped as Vishnu and Shiva
Believed to be a kindly god concerned with the welfare of human beings Visits Earth from time to time in different forms Does this to guide humans or protect them from disaster
Not worried about human issues Very powerful Responsible for both creative and destructive powers of the universe
Dharma refers to law, duty, and obligation. To follow one’s dharma means to dedicate oneself to performing one’s duties and to living by specific sets of rules.
Hinduism: a religion that developed in India over many centuries; it traces its roots to older traditions, such as Vedic beliefs and Brahmanism. Vedas: a collection of ancient writings viewed as sacred by many Hindus. Sanskrit: an ancient Indian language. Brahmanism: ancient ritual traditions in which Brahmins played a key role; it grew out of older Vedic religious beliefs and helped lead to Hinduism.
The Mahabharata is an ancient Sanskrit epic narrative of the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kauravas and the Pandavas. The Mahabharata contains much philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or purusharthas. The four goals are: ▪ dharma (right action) ▪ artha (purpose) ▪ kama (pleasure) ▪ moksha (liberation). Among the principal works and stories that are a part of the Mahabharata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Ramayana, and the Rishyasringa, often considered as works in their own right.
The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic narrative that is sacred to many Hindus. It is said to be written by the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu beliefs. It tells us about life in ancient India and offers role models in dharma. It shows the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king. The name Ramayana is a tatpurusha compound of Rāma and ayana ("going, advancing"), translating to "Rama's Journey". It shows Rama living by the rules of dharma. When Rama is a young boy, he is a loyal son. When he grows up, he is a loving husband and a responsible ruler. The Ramayana consists of 24,000 verses in seven books and 500 cantos tells the story of Rama (an avatar of the Hindu preserver-God Vishnu), whose wife Sita is abducted by the demon king of Lanka, Ravana. The Ramayana explores human values and the concept of dharma. The Ramayana was an important influence on later Sanskrit poetry and Indian life and culture. Like the Mahābhārata, the Ramayana is not just a story: it presents the teachings of ancient Hindu sages (Vedas). The characters Rama, Sita, Lakshmana, Bharata, Hanuman and Ravana are all fundamental to the cultural consciousness of India and Nepal.
Answer at least 3 of the following questions: What did you learn about Hinduism that you did not know before today? Summarize the story of the Ramayana. Why would Hindus use the Ramayana to teach the beliefs of their religion? What Hindu beliefs are shown in the Ramayana? What did you learn about Hinduism from watching the Ramayana?
Mahabharata Reading & Questions DUE NEXT CLASS