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Ancient India. India: Modern Map Monsoon Map Harappan Civilization (2500 BCE)

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient India. India: Modern Map Monsoon Map Harappan Civilization (2500 BCE)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient India

2 India: Modern Map

3 Monsoon Map

4 Harappan Civilization (2500 BCE)

5 Aryan Migration

6 The Aryans Light Skinned nomads who entered India from the North in 1500 BCE. The Aryans spoke a language called Sanskrit and counted their worth in cows. The Aryans conquered dark skinned, town-dwelling Dasas when they entered India The Aryans had a rigid class (or caste) system, which determined how people lived their lives (jobs, socializing….).

7 The Caste System

8 Ganges River, Varanasi

9 Bodhgaya, India

10 Origins of Hinduism No founder No single sacred text Collection of practices and beliefs Evolved over time

11 Sacred Texts of Hinduism The Vedas: Brought to the Indian subcontinent by the Aryans. The Vedas are four collections of prayers and instructions for performing rituals. The Rig Veda is the most important, which includes Purusa. Mahabharata: A great epic Indian story that explains the struggles that took place in India as the Aryans moved South. One part is the Bhagavad Gita, about a warrior prince about to go to war; chariot driver is Krishna, god in human form. Ramayana: The great epic story of Rama and Sita, which stresses the importance of dharma.

12 Vedas Prayers Rituals Existed orally Written in Sanskrit around 300 BCE

13 The Vedas

14 Rama and Sita, with Hanuman, from the Ramayana

15 Krishna and Arjuna, from the Bhagavad Gita

16 Sources of Authority: Philosophical commentary on Vedas begun around 8th C. BCE Means “sitting near;” told in dialogues Explore the relationship between humans and gods Conclusion: Atman the same as Brahman Upanishads

17 Major Beliefs of Hinduism Reincarnation: Karma: Dharma: Samsara: Moksha: The process in which people are reborn into new bodies when they die. System that determines whether someone reincarnates into a higher or lower caste. One’s obligations in life—helps to determine karma—depends on caste Cycle of birth, death, and re-birth Goal of Hinduism—end of samsara—when the soul (atman) becomes one with the one true reality

18 Goal of Life: Understand Ultimate Reality, pierce through maya (illusion) Free oneself from samsara (cycle of rebirth) Moksha

19 Paths to Moksha Bhakti-yoga: path of devoting oneself to God Raja-yoga: path of meditation and proper knowledge Karma-yoga: path of acting correctly not for the result of action

20 Thousands of Gods/Goddesses—flexibility of worship All part of the Ultimate Reality, Brahman Individual human soul, Atman, also part of this Ultimate Reality Main Gods: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva Hindu Pantheon

21 Brahma, the Creator

22 Vishnu, the Preserver

23 Siva/Shiva, the Destroyer

24 Siva/Shiva, as ascetic

25 Ganesh

26 Mother Goddesses: Shakti

27 Durga slaying a demon

28 Kali

29 Hindu Temple, Madras

30 Puja: Worship

31 Sadhus

32 White Temple, Jaipur

33 Hindu Temple, Trimbukeshwar

34 Bathers, Ganges River

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