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Parts of the plant and their functions. Importance of plants  Without plants life on earth would not exist.

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Presentation on theme: "Parts of the plant and their functions. Importance of plants  Without plants life on earth would not exist."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parts of the plant and their functions

2 Importance of plants  Without plants life on earth would not exist

3 Plants:  Primary source of food for people and animals  Produce oxygen  help to keep us cool  renew the air

4 Plants:  slow wind speed  provide a home for wildlife  beautify surroundings  perfume the air  furnish building materials and fuel

5 Parts of a plant  *Four basic parts  *leaves  *stems  *roots  *flowers

6 Leaves  the food factory of the plant  *produce the food used by the plant or stored for later use

7 Shape and size of leaves  vary among plants  used for identification of plants

8 Leaf arrangement  *alternate  *opposite  *whorled  arranged in a circle around the stem

9 External leaf structure  *petiole - leaf stalk  *leaf blade (leaf)  has veins  forms structural framework of the leaf

10 Midrib  *large center vein from which all other leaf veins extend

11 Margins  *edges of leaves  assists in plant identification

12 Internal leaf structure  *epidermis  skin of the leaf  single layer of cells  protects leaf from loss of too much moisture

13 Guard Cells  open and close the small pore on the underside of the leaf

14 Stomates  *allow the plant to breathe and transpire  *give off moisture

15 Chloroplasts  *contain chlorophyll  *located inside the cells

16 Photosynthesis  process by which CO2 and H2O in the presence of light are converted to sugar and oxygen

17 Chemical formula  6CO2 + 6H2O  -----> in reaction with sunlight and chlorophyll ------>  C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2

18 food  *manufactured in the leaves moves downward through the stem to the roots  used by the plant  stored in stem or root and leaf in the form of sugar, starch or protein.

19 Respiration  *plants respire 24 hours a day  consume O2 and give off CO2  plants produce more O2 through ps. Than they consume during respiration and growth.

20 Stems  *have two main functions  *movement of water and minerals from the roots upward and movement of manufactured food down

21 Stem functions  *support of leaves and reproductive structures

22 Stems also  *used for food storage and reproduction of plants involving cuttings  *Green stems manufacture food just as leaves do

23 Internal Stem Structure  *phloem- bark, carries manufactured foods down.  *Xylem- wood, carries water and minerals up.  *Cambium- separates the 2 and produces all new cells.  *Characteristic of dicots

24 Internal Stem Structure  *dicot- dicotyledon, a plant with 2 seed leaves

25 Monocot  *Monocotyledon - a plant with one seed leaf.  *Have vascular bundles, contain both xylem and phloem in each small bundle

26 Monocot  stems have no cambium  cells enlarge to create size of mature stem

27 Economic Importance  food  building materials

28 Roots  * Usually underground  *functions:  *anchor plant and hold upright  *absorb water and minerals form soil and conduct to stem  *store food, & propagation

29 Root Structure  internal  similar to stems  older roots have xylem, phloem and cambian

30 external  root cap  produces continuous supply of new cells  protects roots as they push through soil

31 Structure  *root hairs  *absorb moisture and minerals  *small roots

32 Functions other than water and mineral absorption  *cash crops for food  carrots  beets  radishes  sweet potatoes  propagation

33 Type of root systems  *fibrous- grasses  *easier transplanting  *shorter, smaller, more compact  tap root- carrot  *longer and fewer roots



36 Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds  pollination- color of flower attracts insects to fertilize flower  beginning of fruit and seed formation  fruits and seed are attractive to birds who eat and spread seeds.  Reproduces plant  some seeds carried on animals coats

37 Parts of the Flower  differ in size, shape, and color, some basic parts  sepal  green leaf-like part, covers and protects bud before opening

38 Petals  are actually leaves  usually bright colors to attract pollinating insects.

39 Parts of the Flower  stamens  male part of flower  has two parts  filament-stalk

40 Anther  anther- sac-like structure on top of filament, contains pollen

41 Parts of the Flower  Pistil - female part  in the center of flower  has three parts

42 Pistil  three parts  stigma - top - sticky  style - tube leading from stigma to ovary

43 Ovary  egg cells develop here  grows to become fruit or seedcoat

44 Types of Flowers  complete  contains 4 main parts

45 Incomplete  does not have all 4 main parts

46 Perfect  has stamens and pistils

47 Imperfect  lacks stamens or pistils

48 Types of Flowers  monoecious  stamens and pistils are found in separate flowers on the same plant  ex: Corn

49 dioecious  male or staminate flowers found on one plant, female or pistilate flowers on another plant  ex: holly

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