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THE COLD WAR CHAPTER 33. The Iron Curtain Eastern Europe is the first area where the communist/capitalist conflict arose Eastern Europe is the first area.

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Presentation on theme: "THE COLD WAR CHAPTER 33. The Iron Curtain Eastern Europe is the first area where the communist/capitalist conflict arose Eastern Europe is the first area."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE COLD WAR CHAPTER 33

2 The Iron Curtain Eastern Europe is the first area where the communist/capitalist conflict arose Eastern Europe is the first area where the communist/capitalist conflict arose The creation of satellite nations forced Truman and Churchill to act The creation of satellite nations forced Truman and Churchill to act Churchill uses the phrase iron curtain to describe the barrier between Western Europe (non-communist) and Eastern Europe (communist) Churchill uses the phrase iron curtain to describe the barrier between Western Europe (non-communist) and Eastern Europe (communist)

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5 Policy of Containment US policy US policy Restricts communism into its current borders Restricts communism into its current borders Issued in 1940s Issued in 1940s

6 Truman Doctrine President Truman says the US will help any non-communist country combat communism President Truman says the US will help any non-communist country combat communism i.e. Turkey and Greece i.e. Turkey and Greece

7 Marshall Plan Economic plan to rebuild western Europe Economic plan to rebuild western Europe Developed by US Sec. of State George Marshall Developed by US Sec. of State George Marshall Will win the Nobel Peace Prize for this action Will win the Nobel Peace Prize for this action

8 A Germany Divided… Germany and Berlin divided between: US, Soviet Union, France, GB Germany and Berlin divided between: US, Soviet Union, France, GB When GB and FR entered into Marshall Plan and began to join democratic forces, Stalin got angry When GB and FR entered into Marshall Plan and began to join democratic forces, Stalin got angry THUS…. THUS….

9 Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift (1948) The Soviets want all of Berlin (since it is in their zone) so they blockaded the western portion The Soviets want all of Berlin (since it is in their zone) so they blockaded the western portion They did this hoping to make the Allies give up this section They did this hoping to make the Allies give up this section In response, supplies, food, medicine, etc were sent in by air for over 11 months In response, supplies, food, medicine, etc were sent in by air for over 11 months In 1949 Stalin lifts the blockade In 1949 Stalin lifts the blockade

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13 NATO vs. Warsaw Pact North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) developed in 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) developed in 1949 It is designed as a military alliance to defend US, Western Europe and Canada from outside attack It is designed as a military alliance to defend US, Western Europe and Canada from outside attack In response, communist nations develop the Warsaw Pact In response, communist nations develop the Warsaw Pact

14 Arms Race Also in 1949 the Soviets successfully tested their own atomic bomb Also in 1949 the Soviets successfully tested their own atomic bomb Now it was a race between the USSR and the US to see who could develop and strengthen weapon systems Now it was a race between the USSR and the US to see who could develop and strengthen weapon systems

15 Khrushchev Becomes leader after Stalin dies in 1953 Becomes leader after Stalin dies in 1953 He wants to destalinize the Soviet Union (reverse some polices that Stalin started) He wants to destalinize the Soviet Union (reverse some polices that Stalin started)

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17 A Peaceful Coexistence Khrushchev calls for this policy to avoid war with the west Khrushchev calls for this policy to avoid war with the west Encourages nations to follow communism and improves society Encourages nations to follow communism and improves society A special emphasis is put on technological research A special emphasis is put on technological research

18 Sputnik, ICBM and a Space Race The Soviets launch Sputnik I, worlds first space satellite The Soviets launch Sputnik I, worlds first space satellite Both USSR and US test Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) which are long range rockets Both USSR and US test Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) which are long range rockets The need to be one step ahead of the other country with space technology development is known as the space race The need to be one step ahead of the other country with space technology development is known as the space race

19 Sputnik

20 ICBM

21 Soured Relations Lead to Problems in Cuba Relations are good for a while between US and USSR until the USSR shoots down a US spy plane Relations are good for a while between US and USSR until the USSR shoots down a US spy plane USSR denounces US and America retaliates by cutting off trade w/ Cuba, as they are harboring Soviet nuclear missiles USSR denounces US and America retaliates by cutting off trade w/ Cuba, as they are harboring Soviet nuclear missiles Cuba turns to USSR for help Cuba turns to USSR for help Cuba already communist due to Castro coming to power in 1959 Cuba already communist due to Castro coming to power in 1959

22 Bay of Pigs 1961 The US decides to get Castro out of power by taking Cuban exiles in America, having the CIA train them, put them back in Cuba, have them start a revolt and overthrow Castro The US decides to get Castro out of power by taking Cuban exiles in America, having the CIA train them, put them back in Cuba, have them start a revolt and overthrow Castro This was a HUGE failure and an embarrassment to JFK This was a HUGE failure and an embarrassment to JFK

23 Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 Since the US found Soviet missiles pointed at America in Cuba they needed to act Since the US found Soviet missiles pointed at America in Cuba they needed to act The Soviets put their missiles in Cuba to offset US missiles in Turkey pointed at the USSR The Soviets put their missiles in Cuba to offset US missiles in Turkey pointed at the USSR In response, the US blockaded Cuba and Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles if the US did not invade Cuba In response, the US blockaded Cuba and Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles if the US did not invade Cuba

24 Results of Cuban Missile Crisis This crisis is one of the most important events of Cold War…Why???? This crisis is one of the most important events of Cold War…Why???? Each side knew better relations were key and set up a hotline so they could talk before missiles were launched Each side knew better relations were key and set up a hotline so they could talk before missiles were launched The US removes its missiles from Turkey The US removes its missiles from Turkey Leads to policy of détente, or relaxing of tensions between US and USSR Leads to policy of détente, or relaxing of tensions between US and USSR

25 SALT SALT: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks SALT: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Nixon was the first to meet with the Soviets and they basically agreed to limit their nuclear weapons Nixon was the first to meet with the Soviets and they basically agreed to limit their nuclear weapons This also is an example of détente or the beginning of the end of the Cold War This also is an example of détente or the beginning of the end of the Cold War

26 Soviet Satellite Nations The USSR kept a close guard on its satellite nations The USSR kept a close guard on its satellite nations The people resented this, though could not do much against the powerful Soviet forces The people resented this, though could not do much against the powerful Soviet forces Some countries include: Some countries include: Poland Poland Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia Hungary Hungary East Germany and East Berlin (city) East Germany and East Berlin (city)

27 IRAN HOSTAGE CRISIS The US tried to keep the Shah of Iran in power as he wanted to westernize Iran and also wished to get rid of religious influence in the government The US tried to keep the Shah of Iran in power as he wanted to westernize Iran and also wished to get rid of religious influence in the government Another political group had the support of the people, who wished to see religion remain in government Another political group had the support of the people, who wished to see religion remain in government This group used their power to take over Iran and wanted the Shah to be tried for treason This group used their power to take over Iran and wanted the Shah to be tried for treason The Shah (supported by the US) would not return from exile. The Shah (supported by the US) would not return from exile.

28 IRAN HOSTAGE CRISIS CONTD In 1979, a group of militants stormed the US embassy and held hostage all of the embassy workers for almost two years with the permission of the new Iranian govt In 1979, a group of militants stormed the US embassy and held hostage all of the embassy workers for almost two years with the permission of the new Iranian govt They demanded return of the Shah for trial in exchange for the hostages, but the US would not comply They demanded return of the Shah for trial in exchange for the hostages, but the US would not comply The hostages were eventually let go (1981), but the relationship between Iran and US remains strained even today The hostages were eventually let go (1981), but the relationship between Iran and US remains strained even today

29 Berlin Wall Many people had begun to migrate over to West Berlin in search for better jobs, economy, or to get away from communism Many people had begun to migrate over to West Berlin in search for better jobs, economy, or to get away from communism This was an embarrassment to the Soviet Union so they began to build a massive wall This was an embarrassment to the Soviet Union so they began to build a massive wall This wall was to keep westerners out and easterners in This wall was to keep westerners out and easterners in People faced dogs, electric wire, etc trying to get across People faced dogs, electric wire, etc trying to get across It was the most visible and powerful symbol representing the iron curtain It was the most visible and powerful symbol representing the iron curtain

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31 Fall of Berlin Wall In November 1989 the government of East Berlin announced that crossing the border (wall) would be permitted In November 1989 the government of East Berlin announced that crossing the border (wall) would be permitted In the next few weeks that followed, the wall was dismantled In the next few weeks that followed, the wall was dismantled German unification (east and west united) was finally completed on October 3, 1990 German unification (east and west united) was finally completed on October 3, 1990

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33 Tiananmen Square Series of demonstrations led by students in China in the summer of 1989 Series of demonstrations led by students in China in the summer of 1989 These students were protesting the communist government These students were protesting the communist government The military cracked down on the protesters, leaving many dead and wounded The military cracked down on the protesters, leaving many dead and wounded The violence the protesters met was broadcasted around the world and angered many democratic nations The violence the protesters met was broadcasted around the world and angered many democratic nations

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