2 The Iron CurtainEastern Europe is the first area where the communist/capitalist conflict aroseThe creation of satellite nations forced Truman and Churchill to actChurchill uses the phrase “iron curtain” to describe the barrier between Western Europe (non-communist) and Eastern Europe (communist)
5 Policy of Containment US policy Restricts communism into its current bordersIssued in 1940s
6 Truman DoctrinePresident Truman says the US will help any non-communist country combat communismi.e. Turkey and Greece
7 Marshall Plan Economic plan to rebuild western Europe Developed by US Sec. of State George MarshallWill win the Nobel Peace Prize for this action
8 A Germany Divided…Germany and Berlin divided between: US, Soviet Union, France, GBWhen GB and FR entered into Marshall Plan and began to join democratic forces, Stalin got angryTHUS….
9 Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift (1948) The Soviets want all of Berlin (since it is in their zone) so they blockaded the western portionThey did this hoping to make the Allies give up this sectionIn response, supplies, food, medicine, etc were sent in by air for over 11 monthsIn 1949 Stalin lifts the blockade
13 NATO vs. Warsaw PactNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) developed in 1949It is designed as a military alliance to defend US, Western Europe and Canada from outside attackIn response, communist nations develop the Warsaw Pact
14 Arms RaceAlso in 1949 the Soviets successfully tested their own atomic bombNow it was a race between the USSR and the US to see who could develop and strengthen weapon systems
15 Khrushchev Becomes leader after Stalin dies in 1953 He wants to “destalinize” the Soviet Union (reverse some polices that Stalin started)
17 A Peaceful Coexistence Khrushchev calls for this policy to avoid war with the westEncourages nations to follow communism and improves societyA special emphasis is put on technological research
18 Sputnik, ICBM and a Space Race The Soviets launch Sputnik I, world’s first space satelliteBoth USSR and US test Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) which are long range rocketsThe need to be one step ahead of the other country with space technology development is known as the space race
21 Soured Relations Lead to Problems in Cuba Relations are good for a while between US and USSR until the USSR shoots down a US spy planeUSSR denounces US and America retaliates by cutting off trade w/ Cuba, as they are harboring Soviet nuclear missilesCuba turns to USSR for helpCuba already communist due to Castro coming to power in 1959
22 Bay of Pigs 1961The US decides to get Castro out of power by taking Cuban exiles in America, having the CIA train them, put them back in Cuba, have them start a revolt and overthrow CastroThis was a HUGE failure and an embarrassment to JFK
23 Cuban Missile Crisis 1962Since the US found Soviet missiles pointed at America in Cuba they needed to actThe Soviets put their missiles in Cuba to offset US missiles in Turkey pointed at the USSRIn response, the US blockaded Cuba and Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles if the US did not invade Cuba
24 Results of Cuban Missile Crisis This crisis is one of the most important events of Cold War…Why????Each side knew better relations were key and set up a “hotline” so they could talk before missiles were launchedThe US removes its missiles from TurkeyLeads to policy of détente, or relaxing of tensions between US and USSR
25 SALT SALT: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Nixon was the first to meet with the Soviets and they basically agreed to limit their nuclear weaponsThis also is an example of détente or the beginning of the end of the Cold War
26 Soviet Satellite Nations The USSR kept a close guard on its satellite nationsThe people resented this, though could not do much against the powerful Soviet forcesSome countries include:PolandCzechoslovakiaHungaryEast Germany and East Berlin (city)
27 IRAN HOSTAGE CRISISThe US tried to keep the Shah of Iran in power as he wanted to westernize Iran and also wished to get rid of religious influence in the governmentAnother political group had the support of the people, who wished to see religion remain in governmentThis group used their power to take over Iran and wanted the Shah to be tried for treasonThe Shah (supported by the US) would not return from exile.
28 IRAN HOSTAGE CRISIS CONT’D In 1979, a group of militants stormed the US embassy and held hostage all of the embassy workers for almost two years with the permission of the new Iranian gov’tThey demanded return of the Shah for trial in exchange for the hostages, but the US would not complyThe hostages were eventually let go (1981), but the relationship between Iran and US remains strained even today
29 Berlin WallMany people had begun to migrate over to West Berlin in search for better jobs, economy, or to get away from communismThis was an embarrassment to the Soviet Union so they began to build a massive wallThis wall was to keep westerners out and easterners inPeople faced dogs, electric wire, etc trying to get acrossIt was the most visible and powerful symbol representing the iron curtain
31 Fall of Berlin WallIn November 1989 the government of East Berlin announced that crossing the border (wall) would be permittedIn the next few weeks that followed, the wall was dismantledGerman unification (east and west united) was finally completed on October 3, 1990
33 Tiananmen SquareSeries of demonstrations led by students in China in the summer of 1989These students were protesting the communist governmentThe military cracked down on the protesters, leaving many dead and woundedThe violence the protesters met was broadcasted around the world and angered many democratic nations
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