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NOTES 10 – Acids, Bases, & pH. Ion Review An ion is an atom that gains or loses electrons giving it an overall positive or negative charge An ion is an.

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Presentation on theme: "NOTES 10 – Acids, Bases, & pH. Ion Review An ion is an atom that gains or loses electrons giving it an overall positive or negative charge An ion is an."— Presentation transcript:

1 NOTES 10 – Acids, Bases, & pH

2 Ion Review An ion is an atom that gains or loses electrons giving it an overall positive or negative charge An ion is an atom that gains or loses electrons giving it an overall positive or negative charge Lose electrons = positively charged ion Lose electrons = positively charged ion Gain electrons = negatively charged ion Gain electrons = negatively charged ion Sometimes a compound acts like an ion Sometimes a compound acts like an ion Hydrogen atoms have 1 proton and 1 electron Hydrogen atoms have 1 proton and 1 electron Compounds that take hydrogen’s electron can become negative ions (more electrons than protons) Compounds that take hydrogen’s electron can become negative ions (more electrons than protons) The leftover hydrogen proton becomes a positive hydrogen ion The leftover hydrogen proton becomes a positive hydrogen ion

3 Water Molecules Form Ions Water molecules break apart into ions and then reform into molecules Water molecules break apart into ions and then reform into molecules Water forms two different ions Water forms two different ions Hydrogen Ions = H + Hydrogen Ions = H + Hydroxide Ions = OH - Hydroxide Ions = OH - H 2 O  H + + OH - H 2 O  H + + OH - When water breaks into ions, it is called dissociation (Water dissociates into ions) When water breaks into ions, it is called dissociation (Water dissociates into ions) In pure water there are equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxide ions In pure water there are equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxide ions

4 Dissociation of Water In any sample of water, very few of the molecules are dissociated at any one time In any sample of water, very few of the molecules are dissociated at any one time About 1 in 550 million About 1 in 550 million There is constant change There is constant change As one hydrogen ion reattaches to a hydroxide ion to form a water molecule, another water molecule dissociates to replace the hydrogen ion and the hydroxide ion in solution As one hydrogen ion reattaches to a hydroxide ion to form a water molecule, another water molecule dissociates to replace the hydrogen ion and the hydroxide ion in solution

5 What are acids? Acid – a compound that increases the number of hydrogen ions (H + ) when dissolved in water Acid – a compound that increases the number of hydrogen ions (H + ) when dissolved in water In water, acids dissociate producing H + ions In water, acids dissociate producing H + ions Acidic solutions (acid substance + water) have more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions (More H + than OH - ) Acidic solutions (acid substance + water) have more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions (More H + than OH - ) Acids taste sour Acids taste sour Acids can cause burns Acids can cause burns Acids can be good conductors of electricity Acids can be good conductors of electricity EX. acetic acid, citric acid, ascorbic acid EX. acetic acid, citric acid, ascorbic acid

6 Strong Vs. Weak Acids Strong acids ionize completely Strong acids ionize completely Every molecule of the acid produces H + ions and negative acid ions Every molecule of the acid produces H + ions and negative acid ions Strong acids have a pH in the range of 0 to 3 Strong acids have a pH in the range of 0 to 3 EX. Nitric acid in water EX. Nitric acid in water HNO 3  H + + NO 3 - HNO 3  H + + NO 3 - Weak acids do not ionize completely Weak acids do not ionize completely Some molecules form ions, some do not Some molecules form ions, some do not Weak acids have a pH above 3 Weak acids have a pH above 3 EX. Acetic acid in water EX. Acetic acid in water CH 3 COOH  CH 3 COO - + H + CH 3 COOH  CH 3 COO - + H +

7 Acids Are Useful But Can Be Dangerous Acids are used for cleaning, in batteries, making fertilizers, dyes, etc. Acids are used for cleaning, in batteries, making fertilizers, dyes, etc. Foods contain acids (vinegar & citrus fruits) Foods contain acids (vinegar & citrus fruits) Stomach acid helps digest your food Stomach acid helps digest your food Acids in concentrated forms can cause severe skin damage Acids in concentrated forms can cause severe skin damage Acid vapors can damage the eyes, mouth, and lungs Acid vapors can damage the eyes, mouth, and lungs

8 What are bases? Base – a compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions (OH - ) when dissolved in water Base – a compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions (OH - ) when dissolved in water In water, bases dissociate producing OH - ions In water, bases dissociate producing OH - ions Basic solutions (base substance + water) have more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions (More OH - than H + ) Basic solutions (base substance + water) have more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions (More OH - than H + ) Bases taste bitter Bases taste bitter Bases feel slippery and may cause burns Bases feel slippery and may cause burns EX. baking soda, bleach, ammonia EX. baking soda, bleach, ammonia

9 Strong Vs. Weak Bases Strong bases are ionic compounds that contain hydroxide ions (OH - ) Strong bases are ionic compounds that contain hydroxide ions (OH - ) When dissolved in water, a strong base dissociates (separates) forming hydroxide ions When dissolved in water, a strong base dissociates (separates) forming hydroxide ions EX. Sodium hydroxide in water EX. Sodium hydroxide in water NaOH  Na + + OH - NaOH  Na + + OH - Weak bases do not contain hydroxide ions, but form them when mixed with water Weak bases do not contain hydroxide ions, but form them when mixed with water EX. Ammonia and water EX. Ammonia and water NH 3 + H 2 O  NH OH - NH 3 + H 2 O  NH OH -

10 Bases Are Useful But Can Be Dangerous Bases are used to make soaps, to clean drains, to make cement, fertilize soil, etc. Bases are used to make soaps, to clean drains, to make cement, fertilize soil, etc. Bases attack living tissue very quickly Bases attack living tissue very quickly In concentrated form, bases can be very harmful In concentrated form, bases can be very harmful Even in diluted form, some bases can be fairly dangerous Even in diluted form, some bases can be fairly dangerous

11 Acids, Bases, & Electricity Strong acids and strong bases are good conductors of electricity (electrolytes) Strong acids and strong bases are good conductors of electricity (electrolytes) Electrolyte – a substance that dissolves in water forming a solution that conducts electricity Electrolyte – a substance that dissolves in water forming a solution that conducts electricity EX. A solution of sulfuric acid and water conducts electric current in car batteries EX. A solution of sulfuric acid and water conducts electric current in car batteries

12 What is pH? pH – a number used to indicate how acidic or basic a solution is pH – a number used to indicate how acidic or basic a solution is The pH scale goes from 0 to 14 The pH scale goes from 0 to 14 Solutions with a pH below 7 are acids Solutions with a pH below 7 are acids Lower number = stronger acid Lower number = stronger acid EX. A solution with a pH of 2 is a stronger acid than a solution with a pH of 5 EX. A solution with a pH of 2 is a stronger acid than a solution with a pH of 5

13 What is pH? Solutions with a pH above 7 are bases Solutions with a pH above 7 are bases Higher number = stronger base Higher number = stronger base EX. A solution with a pH of 13 is a stronger base than a solution with a pH of 9 EX. A solution with a pH of 13 is a stronger base than a solution with a pH of 9 Pure water has a pH of 7 and is neither acid nor base Pure water has a pH of 7 and is neither acid nor base

14 pH measures the relative amount of H + ions in a solution

15 Neutralization To neutralize means to make the pH of a solution 7 To neutralize means to make the pH of a solution 7 Acids and bases can neutralize each other Acids and bases can neutralize each other If the amounts are equal: strong base + strong acid = neutral solution strong base + weak acid = weaker base solution weak base + strong acid = weaker acid solution

16 Neutralization Reactions Acids and bases react to form water and salt Acids and bases react to form water and salt Salt – an ionic compound that is a product of a neutralization reaction between an acid and a base Salt – an ionic compound that is a product of a neutralization reaction between an acid and a base The base provides the OH - and the acid provides the H + The base provides the OH - and the acid provides the H + OH - + H +  H 2 O OH - + H +  H 2 O The other ions from the acid and base form the salt The other ions from the acid and base form the salt EX. sodium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid EX. sodium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H 2 O NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H 2 O

17 What is acid rain? Normal rain is slightly acidic, with a pH over 5.7 Normal rain is slightly acidic, with a pH over 5.7 Acid rain – rain with a pH below 5.5 Acid rain – rain with a pH below 5.5 Acid rain can harm plants Acid rain can harm plants Acid rain can harm animals, particularly those that live in the water Acid rain can harm animals, particularly those that live in the water Acid rain can damage buildings and other structures Acid rain can damage buildings and other structures

18 How does acid rain form? Burning fossil fuels releases sulfur and nitrogen compounds into the atmosphere Burning fossil fuels releases sulfur and nitrogen compounds into the atmosphere Sulfur dioxide reacts with moisture in clouds to produce sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide reacts with moisture in clouds to produce sulfuric acid Nitrogen oxides react with moisture producing nitric acid Nitrogen oxides react with moisture producing nitric acid The acids drop the pH of rainwater below 5.5 The acids drop the pH of rainwater below 5.5 The largest natural cause of acid rain is the release of sulfur dioxide by volcanoes The largest natural cause of acid rain is the release of sulfur dioxide by volcanoes

19 Acids & Bases - Main Idea Acids and bases react in water to form ions Acids and bases react in water to form ions Acid and base solutions contain large amounts of positive or negative ions Acid and base solutions contain large amounts of positive or negative ions These solutions are highly reactive These solutions are highly reactive When mixed, acid and base solutions can neutralize one another When mixed, acid and base solutions can neutralize one another pH scale measures the strength of an acid or base pH scale measures the strength of an acid or base


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