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III. Factors Affecting Solvation (p. 489 – 497)

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1 III. Factors Affecting Solvation (p. 489 – 497)
Ch. 14 – Mixtures & Solutions III. Factors Affecting Solvation (p. 489 – 497)

2 A. Solvation First... Then... Solvation – the process of dissolving
solute particles are surrounded by solvent particles First... solute particles are separated and pulled into solution Then...

3 A. Solvation Non- Electrolyte Weak Electrolyte Strong Electrolyte
+ sugar - + acetic acid - + salt Non- Electrolyte Weak Electrolyte Strong Electrolyte solute exists as molecules only solute exists as ions and molecules solute exists as ions only DISSOCIATION IONIZATION View animation online.

4 NaCl(s)  Na+(aq) + Cl–(aq)
B. Solvation Dissociation separation of an ionic solid into aqueous ions NaCl(s)  Na+(aq) + Cl–(aq)

5 HNO3(aq) + H2O(l)  H3O+(aq) + NO3–(aq)
B. Solvation Ionization breaking apart of some polar molecules into aqueous ions HNO3(aq) + H2O(l)  H3O+(aq) + NO3–(aq)

6 B. Solvation C6H12O6(s)  C6H12O6(aq) Molecular Solvation
molecules stay intact C6H12O6(s)  C6H12O6(aq)

7 B. Solvation Soap/Detergent polar “head” with long nonpolar “tail”
dissolves nonpolar grease in polar water

8 B. Solubility Rules Molecules are constantly in motion according to…
Kinetic Theory When particles collide, energy is transferred

9 B. Solubility Rules Solubility = amount of a substance that will dissolve in a liquid Smaller pieces of a substance dissolve faster b/c of larger surface area Stirring or shaking speeds dissolving b/c particles are moving faster and colliding more Heating speeds dissolving (see above) Not all substances dissolve

10 C. Solubility Water is universal solvent b/c of its polarity
If something can dissolve in something else, it is said to be soluble If it cannot dissolve, it is said to be insoluble “Like dissolves like”

11 C. Solubility “Like Dissolves Like” NONPOLAR POLAR

12 C. Solubility UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves
no more solute dissolves SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION becomes unstable, crystals form concentration

13 C. Solubility Solubility Curves
maximum grams of solute that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature varies with temp based on a saturated soln

14 C. Solubility Solubility Curve
shows the dependence of solubility on temperature

15 C. Solubility Solids are more soluble at... high temperatures.
Gases are more soluble at... low temperatures & high pressures (Henry’s Law). EX: nitrogen narcosis, the “bends,” soda

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