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II III I III. Factors Affecting Solvation (p. 489 – 497) Ch. 14 – Mixtures & Solutions.

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Presentation on theme: "II III I III. Factors Affecting Solvation (p. 489 – 497) Ch. 14 – Mixtures & Solutions."— Presentation transcript:

1 II III I III. Factors Affecting Solvation (p. 489 – 497) Ch. 14 – Mixtures & Solutions

2 A. Solvation Solvation – Solvation – the process of dissolving solute particles are separated and pulled into solution solute particles are surrounded by solvent particles

3 A. Solvation Strong Electrolyte Non- Electrolyte solute exists as ions only - + salt - + sugar solute exists as molecules only - + acetic acid Weak Electrolyte solute exists as ions and molecules DISSOCIATIONIONIZATION View animation online.animation

4 B. Solvation Dissociation Dissociation separation of an ionic solid into aqueous ions NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl – (aq)

5 B. Solvation Ionization Ionization breaking apart of some polar molecules into aqueous ions HNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO 3 – (aq)

6 B. Solvation Molecular Solvation Molecular Solvation molecules stay intact C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) C 6 H 12 O 6 (aq)

7 B. Solvation Soap/Detergent Soap/Detergent polar head with long nonpolar tail dissolves nonpolar grease in polar water

8 B. Solubility Rules Molecules are constantly in motion according to… Kinetic Theory When particles collide, energy is transferred

9 B. Solubility Rules Solubility = amount of a substance that will dissolve in a liquid Smaller pieces of a substance dissolve faster b/c of larger surface area Stirring or shaking speeds dissolving b/c particles are moving faster and colliding more Heating speeds dissolving (see above) Not all substances dissolve

10 C. Solubility Water is universal solvent b/c of its polarity If something can dissolve in something else, it is said to be soluble If it cannot dissolve, it is said to be insoluble Like dissolves like

11 C. Solubility NONPOLAR POLAR Like Dissolves Like

12 C. Solubility SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute dissolves UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION becomes unstable, crystals form concentration

13 C. Solubility Solubility Curves Solubility Curves maximum grams of solute that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature varies with temp based on a saturated soln

14 C. Solubility Solubility Curve Solubility Curve shows the dependence of solubility on temperature

15 C. Solubility Solids are more soluble at... Solids are more soluble at... high temperatures. Gases are more soluble at... Gases are more soluble at... low temperatures & high pressures (Henrys Law). EX: nitrogen narcosis, the bends, soda


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