Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Acids, Bases, & Solutions. Solutions Solution-uniform mixture that contains a solvent & solute Solution-uniform mixture that contains a solvent & solute.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Acids, Bases, & Solutions. Solutions Solution-uniform mixture that contains a solvent & solute Solution-uniform mixture that contains a solvent & solute."— Presentation transcript:

1 Acids, Bases, & Solutions

2 Solutions Solution-uniform mixture that contains a solvent & solute Solution-uniform mixture that contains a solvent & solute Solvent-the part of the solution that is present in the largest amount Solvent-the part of the solution that is present in the largest amount Solute-the part of the solution that is present in the smaller amount and is dissolved… Solute-the part of the solution that is present in the smaller amount and is dissolved… Water is the universal solvent, but solvents and solutes may be solids, liquids, or gases Water is the universal solvent, but solvents and solutes may be solids, liquids, or gases Solutions have the same properties throughout Solutions have the same properties throughout

3 Colloids a mixture that contains small undissolved particles, particles are too small to be seen, but large enough to scatter light a mixture that contains small undissolved particles, particles are too small to be seen, but large enough to scatter light

4 Suspension Does not have the same properties through out Does not have the same properties through out Contains visible particles Contains visible particles

5 Effects of Solute & Solvents Solutes lower the freezing point & raise the boiling point of a solvent Solutes lower the freezing point & raise the boiling point of a solvent

6 Particles in Solution When a solution forms, particles of the solvent surround and separate the particles of the solute. Ionic and molecular compounds in solution Ionic – positive and negative ions are attracted to the polar water molecules. These types of compounds in water will conduct electricity. Molecular – breaks up into individual neutral molecules (sugar)

7 Common solutions SoluteSolventSolution Gas Air (oxygen and other gases in nitrogen) GasLiquidSoda water (carbon dioxide in water) Liquid Antifreeze (ethylene glycol in water) SolidLiquidDental filling (silver in mercury) SolidLiquidOcean water (sodium chloride in water) Solid Stainless steel (chromium, nickel, and carbon in iron)

8 Concentration Concentrated solution-lots of solute, little solvent Concentrated solution-lots of solute, little solvent Ex. Frozen juice Ex. Frozen juice Dilute solution-little solute, lots of solvent Dilute solution-little solute, lots of solvent Ex. Frozen juice + water Ex. Frozen juice + water Measuring concentration- compare amount of solute to solvent Measuring concentration- compare amount of solute to solvent Ex. 5 grams per 100mL Ex. 5 grams per 100mL

9 Solubility How much solute can dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature How much solute can dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature Unsaturated-can hold more solute Unsaturated-can hold more solute Saturated-can NOT hold more solute Saturated-can NOT hold more solute Supersaturated-too much solute, some is undissolved at the bottom of the container Supersaturated-too much solute, some is undissolved at the bottom of the container

10 Factors affecting solubility Pressure Pressure Increasing the pressure increases the solubility and vise- versa Increasing the pressure increases the solubility and vise- versa Type of solvent Type of solvent Some solutes & solvents are incompatible Some solutes & solvents are incompatible Ex. Oil and vinegar Ex. Oil and vinegar The solvent affects the solubility of a substance The solvent affects the solubility of a substance Ex. Oil-based paint & water Ex. Oil-based paint & water

11 Temperature Temperature Increasing the temp. of a solid increases the solubility Increasing the temp. of a solid increases the solubility Increasing temperature of a gas decreases the solubility Increasing temperature of a gas decreases the solubility

12 Acids and Bases Chemicals may be classified as acids or bases. Chemicals may be classified as acids or bases. Things that are neither acids nor bases are neutral. Things that are neither acids nor bases are neutral. pH measures the acidicity or basidity of a solution pH measures the acidicity or basidity of a solution

13 Acids Taste sour Taste sour Turns blue litmus paper red Turns blue litmus paper red Reacts with metals/carbonates Reacts with metals/carbonates Contains hydrogen ions H + Contains hydrogen ions H + Examples: Examples: Lemon juice Lemon juice Vinegar Vinegar Car battery acid Car battery acid (dangerous!)

14 Some of our favorite foods make our tongue curl up because they are SOUR. Some of our favorite foods make our tongue curl up because they are SOUR. Acids and Bases

15 Bases Taste bitter Taste bitter Feel Slippery Feel Slippery Turns red litmus paper blue Turns red litmus paper blue Contains hydroxide ions OH - Contains hydroxide ions OH - Turns Phenolphthalein pink Turns Phenolphthalein pink Examples: Examples: Milk Milk Baking soda Baking soda Soap Soap Drain cleaner Drain cleaner (dangerous!)

16 Bitter! Some foods have a “bite” of their own because they’re somewhat bitter. Some foods have a “bite” of their own because they’re somewhat bitter.

17 pH A special name given to the acid or base characteristic is called: pH A special name given to the acid or base characteristic is called: pH

18 How Do We Measure pH? We measure pH by using special strips of paper called pH paper We measure pH by using special strips of paper called pH paper

19 How Does It Work? The paper is treated with chemicals that change color to show the pH. The paper is treated with chemicals that change color to show the pH. When the paper touches the substance being tested, it turns a specific color to tell if the substance is an acid or a base. When the paper touches the substance being tested, it turns a specific color to tell if the substance is an acid or a base.

20 The pH Scale pH scale ranges from pH scale ranges from pH 7 is neutral; neither acid nor base pH 7 is neutral; neither acid nor base Pure water is pH 7 Pure water is pH 7 Low pH = acid Low pH = acid High pH = base High pH = base The closer to the ends of the scale, the stronger the solution The closer to the ends of the scale, the stronger the solution

21 Acid Any substance which has a pH value less than 7 is considered an acid Any substance which has a pH value less than 7 is considered an acid Acid Neutral Base Acid Neutral Base

22 Base Any substance which has a pH value greater than 7 is a base Any substance which has a pH value greater than 7 is a base Acid Neutral Base Acid Neutral Base

23 pH 7 A pH of 7 is called neutral—neither acid nor base. A pH of 7 is called neutral—neither acid nor base Acid Neutral Base

24 The pH Scale

25 Each pH unit is 10 times as large as the previous one Each pH unit is 10 times as large as the previous one A change of 2 pH units means 100 times more basic or acidic A change of 2 pH units means 100 times more basic or acidic Each pH unit is 10 times as large as the previous one Each pH unit is 10 times as large as the previous one A change of 2 pH units means 100 times more basic or acidic A change of 2 pH units means 100 times more basic or acidic x10x100

26 Acid-Base Reactions Neutralization-a reaction in which an acid reacts with a base to produce salt and water Neutralization-a reaction in which an acid reacts with a base to produce salt and water HCl + NaOH= H 2 O + NaCl HCl + NaOH= H 2 O + NaCl


Download ppt "Acids, Bases, & Solutions. Solutions Solution-uniform mixture that contains a solvent & solute Solution-uniform mixture that contains a solvent & solute."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google