Myers PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 17 Therapy James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
Therapy zPsychotherapy yan emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties zEclectic Approach yan approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the clients problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
Therapy- Psychoanalysis zPsychoanalysis yFreud believed the patients free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences – and the therapists interpretations of them – released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight yuse has rapidly decreased in recent years zResistance yblocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
Therapy- Psychoanalysis zInterpretation ythe analysts noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight zTransference ythe patients transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships xe.g. love or hatred for a parent
Humanistic Therapy zClient-Centered Therapy yhumanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers ytherapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients growth zActive Listening yempathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies
Behavior Therapy zBehavior Therapy ytherapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors zCounterconditioning yprocedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors ybased on classical conditioning yincludes systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning
Behavior Therapy zSystematic Desensitization ytype of counterconditioning yassociates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli ycommonly used to treat phobias zAversive Conditioning ytype of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior ynausea ---> alcohol
Behavior Therapy zToken Economy yan operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior ypatient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats
Behavior Therapy zToken Economy Criticisms yDependent on Extrinsic Awards- What happens when the reinforcers stop? ySubjective- Is it right for one human being to control anothers behavior?
Cognitive Therapy zCognitive Therapy yteaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting ybased on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
Cognitive Therapy zA cognitive perspective on psychological disorders Lost job Depression Internal beliefs: Im worthless. Its hopeless. Lost job Internal beliefs: My boss is a jerk. I deserve something better. No depression
Cognitive Therapy zCognitive therapy for depression Waiting list patients Cognitive training patients Cognitive training patients much less depressed Pre-therapy test Post-therapy test 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Depression scores
Cognitive Therapy zCognitive-Behavioral Therapy ya popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
Group Therapies zFamily Therapy ytreats the family as a system yviews an individuals unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members yattempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
Who Does Therapy? zTo whom do people turn for help for psychological difficulties?
Who Does Therapy? zClinical psychologists yMost are psychologists with a Ph.D. and expertise in research, assessment, and therapy, supplemented by a supervised internship. yAbout half work in agencies and institutions, half in private practice.
Who Does Therapy? zClinical or Psychiatric social worker yA two-year Master of Social Work graduate program plus postgraduate supervision prepares some social workers to offer psychotherapy, mostly to people with everyday personal and family problems. yAbout half have earned the National Association of Social Workers designation of clinical social worker.
Who Does Therapy? zCounselors yMarriage and family counselors specialize in problems arising from family relations. yPastoral counselors provide counseling to countless people. yAbuse counselors work with substance abusers and with spouse and child abusers and their victims.
Who Does Therapy? zPsychiatrists yPhysicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders. yNot all psychiatrists have had extensive training in psychotherapy, but as M.D.s they can prescribe medications. Thus, they tend to see those with the most serious problems. yMany have a private practice.
Biomedical Therapies zPsychopharmacology ystudy of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior zLithium ychemical that provides an effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorders zChlorpromazine ( Thorazine ) yan anti psychotic drug of low-potency. Used in the treatment of schizophrenia for disorganized and psychotic thinking. Also used to help treat false perceptions (e.g. hallucinations or delusions.)
Biomedical Therapies zThe emptying of U.S. mental hospitals Introduction of antipsychotic drugs Rapid decline in the mental hospital population 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Year 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 State and county mental hospital residents, in thousands
zElectroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) ytherapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient zPsychosurgery ysurgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior ylobotomy xnow-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients