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Notes 3-2: Looking Inside Cells.

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1 Notes 3-2: Looking Inside Cells

2 Cells have a job! Your cells have many jobs to do.
The main job of the cell is to make proteins, which will be used in all of your body’s major activities. Your cells could not do this without the help of it’s organelles. Organelles are small structures within the cells that carry out specific functions. Let’s talk about all of the different organelles of the cell!

3 Cell Wall Only in plants and some bacteria
Rigid structure on outside of cell made up of cellulose Provides protection, support, and shape to cell NOT in animal cells! (we have a cytoskeleton inside our cells instead that provides our cells with a shape)

4 Plant Cell Don’t Draw… Notice the location of the cell wall and the cell membrane inside it.

5 Cell Membrane In plants (inside cell wall) and animals (outer layer)
Controls what comes in and out of cell Helps provide shape and protection of cell

6 Animal cell Don’t Draw… Notice the location of the cell membrane. Is there a cell wall? NO!!

7 Nucleus The nucleus is the cell’s control center, directing all of the cell’s activities. Nuclear Envelope: Protects Nucleus, has pores to control what comes in/out of nucleus Chromatin: Genetic material of cell (DNA), provides instructions to cells to carry out specific functions Nucleolus: makes the ribosomes (which make the proteins)

8 Cytoplasm Gel-like fluid within cell
Contains most of cells major organelles

9 Mitochondrion Mitochondria are known as the “powerhouses” of the cell because they convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions.

10 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
The endoplasmic reticulum is similar to the system of hallways in a building. Proteins and other materials move throughout the cell by way of the ER. The spots on this organelle are ribosomes, which produce proteins. The job of the ER is to modify (change) the proteins.

11 Ribosomes Located on the ER and throughout the cytoplasm
Site where proteins are made

12 Golgi Body Receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell or out of the cell.

13 Lysosomes Small round stuctures Clean up crew of cell
Contains chemicals to break down old cell organelles and release them to be used again

14 Vacuoles Storage area for cells Store food, waste, and other materials
ANIMAL CELL Storage area for cells Store food, waste, and other materials Some animal cells have small storage vacuoles Only plant cells have one large vacuole called a “central vacuole” PLANT CELL Notice the size difference in the vacuoles between the 2 cells

15 Chloroplasts Only in plant cells Green organelles in cytoplasm
Capture energy from sun to make food for plants (photosynthesis) Make the leaves green

16 Cells are specialized Cells have different structures (like shape) to perform a variety of functions Not all cells look the same or do the same task Nerve cells have long extensions to carry signals throughout body. Can you see the nucleus? Red blood cells are flat so they can carry oxygen through blood vessels. White blood cells are more round and hold chemicals to fight infections.

17 Let’s Review! No! Provide energy to the cell.
Do animal cells have cell walls? What is the function of the mitochondria? No! Provide energy to the cell.

18 Let’s Review! In the nucleus Plant cells
Where is the cells DNA located? What types of cells have chloroplasts? In the nucleus Plant cells

19 Let’s Review! It’s the site where proteins are made Proteins
What is the main goal of the cell? (What is the cell producing?) What is the function of the ribosomes? It’s the site where proteins are made Proteins

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