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Cells and Heredity Lesson 2 chapter 1.  The tiny structures inside cells are known as organelles.  The cell wall is found in plant cells, which is a.

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Presentation on theme: "Cells and Heredity Lesson 2 chapter 1.  The tiny structures inside cells are known as organelles.  The cell wall is found in plant cells, which is a."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells and Heredity Lesson 2 chapter 1

2  The tiny structures inside cells are known as organelles.  The cell wall is found in plant cells, which is a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds plant cells and some other organisms.  A plant’s cell wall helps to protect a support the cell.

3  All cells have cell membranes.  The cell membrane controls what substances come into and out of a cell.  Everything the cell needs, from food to oxygen enters through the cell membrane.  Harmful waste products leave through the cell membrane. For a cell to survive, the cell membrane must allow these materials to pass in and out.

4  The nucleus acts as the “brain” of the cell.  You can think of the nucleus as the cell’s control center, directing all the cell’s activities.  The nucleus is surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope. Just like mailing envelope protects letters inside, the nuclear membrane protects the nucleus.  Inside the nucleus you will find chromatin, which directs or tells the nucleus how to function. Chromatin contains genetic material.  The nucleolus, is where ribosome's are made, where proteins are produced.

5  As you leave the nucleus, you will find the cytoplasm, which is located between the cell membrane and the nucleus.  Many cell organelles are found here.  The mitochondria are known as the “powerhouses” of cells because they convert energy in food to energy the cell can use to carry out functions.

6  The endoplasmic reticulum contains passageways that carries proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another.  Attached to some surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum are small, grain like bodies called ribosome's.  Ribosome's function as factories to produce proteins.

7  The Golgi Bodies receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell.  Chloroplasts capture energy from the sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell. (found in plant cells) This makes leaves green.  Vacuoles are the storage areas of cells. They store food and other materials needed by the cell.

8  Lysosomes are small, round structures containing chemicals that break down certain materials in the cell.  Lysosomes also break down large old cell parts and release the substances so they can be used again.  Lysosomes are like a cell’s cleanup crew.

9  Plants and animals contain may cells.  In many celled organisms cells are often organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems.  An organ such as your heart is made up of tissues that function together.  An organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform a major function. EX: circulatory system.

10  While a bacterial cell does have a cell wall and a cell membrane, it does not contain a nucleus.  The bacterial cell’s genetic material, which looks like a thick, tangles string, is found in the cytoplasm.

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