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Agriscience Applications

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Presentation on theme: "Agriscience Applications"— Presentation transcript:

1 Agriscience Applications
Plant Science Agriscience Applications

2 Careers in Plant Science
Objective: Investigate career opportunities related to plant science industries

3 Careers in Plant Science
Career Areas: Forest Careers Growing, managing and harvesting trees for wood and its by-products Horticulture Careers Floriculture- flower production and use Landscape and nursery- plants used around homes and businesses for aesthetic purposes

4 Careers in Plant Science
Forest Careers Forester Helps with the science of growing trees Forest Ranger Management of forest including fire prevention Logging Foreman Supervise the harvesting of trees

5 Careers in Plant Science
Floriculture (Horticulture) Floral designer Flower grower Greenhouse manager Retail florist Wholesale florist

6 Careers in Plant Science
Landscaping and nursery (Horticulture) Greenskeeper- cares for golf courses Landscaper- installs plants Landscape architect Nursery operator- grows trees and shrubs Turf farmer- grows turf (grass) for sale

7 Plant Parts and Functions
Objective: Explain the function of major plant parts as related to plant growth and health

8 Plants Composed of many parts Roots Steams Leaves Flowers

9 Roots Often the largest part of the plant Adventitious roots
Squash can have miles of roots Adventitious roots Found in places unexpected Poison ivy Mistletoe

10 Root Two types of systems Taproot- main root that usually grows down
Carrots Fibrous roots- thin, hair like, and numerous Grass Corn

11 Root Tissue Root cap- outermost part of a root
Tough cells that penetrate the soil Pushes through soil partials

12 Roots Area of cell division Area of cell elongation
Allows roots to grow longer New cell replace worn away cells Area of cell elongation Between the root cap and the plan base Cells become longer Cells become specialized

13 Roots Xylem Carries water and nutrients to the upper portion of the plant Phloem Pipeline Carries food to the roots Food is stored in the roots

14 Roots Areas of cell maturation Where cells mature Root hairs emerge
Develop on the surface of the root Absorb water and nutrients Damaged easily Cannot be replaced

15 Stems Support leaves, flowers, fruit Types of stems: Other stems:
Woody Herbaceous Other stems: Bulbs (onions) Rhizomes (wiregrass) Tubers (potato)

16 Carbon dioxide + water = sugar + oxygen
Leaves Manufactures food for the plant Converts sunlight into food Photosynthesis Light Carbon dioxide + water = sugar + oxygen

17 Leaves Help in the identification of plants
Leaf margins Shape and size varies with each species Simple leaves Compound leaves


19 Flowers Functions to produce seeds Types of flowers Pollination
Perfect (both male and female) Imperfect Pollination The union of pollen with the female part of the flower

20 Assignment Using pages 274 to 289 write a definition of the following terms in your notebook: Root cap Root hairs Woody Fruit Vegetable Perfect flower Herbaceous Stoma Bulbs Rhizomes Node Internode Simple leaves guard cells Imperfect flower Cuticle

21 Photosynthesis Objective: Explore the photosynthesis process as related to growth and development of a plant

22 Process Light energy is connected to chemical energy
Chloroplast contains chlorophyll Simple sugars are made (glucose) Carbon dioxide is used Oxygen is produced

23 Photosynthesis 6CO2+12H2O C6H12O2+6O2 Glucose Oxygen Carbon Dioxide
Water Glucose Oxygen 6CO2+12H2O C6H12O2+6O2

24 Slowing Photosynthesis
Low Carbon dioxide Greenhouse Carbon dioxide generators

25 Slowing Photosynthesis
Low Light Dark rooms Light intensity matters Temperature Best at degrees Fahrenheit Extreme temps can stop photosynthesis

26 Respiration Food is used Energy is released Oxygen is used
Carbon dioxide is produced Occurs in both light and dark

27 Transpiration Release of water vapor from the stomata
90% of the water entering the roots 10% is used in chemical processes Functions: cooling transportation maintaining turgor pressure

28 Plant Reproduction Objective: Describe flower and seed parts, including their function

29 Plant Reproduction Two types of propagation: Sexual Asexual
use of seed for reproducing plants only way to obtain new varieties and hybrid vigor often least expensive and quickest Asexual vegetative exact duplicate

30 Parts of the Flower Stamen (male part) Filament
Anther- manufactures pollen Pollen- male sexual reproductive cell

31 Parts of the Flower Pistil (female part) Stigma- receives the pollen
Style- connection to the ovary Ovary- contains the ovules or female reproductive cells

32 Parts of the Flower Petals (corolla) Colored part of the flower
Attract insects or other natural pollinators

33 Parts of the Flower Pollen Stamen (Male) Anther Filament Stigma
Style Pistil (Female) Ovary

34 Flower Parts Anther Filament

35 The Seed Parts of the seed: Seed Coat offers protection
Endosperm supplies food for the seed Embryo is the young plant

36 Germination The seed starts to sprout and grow
Requires four environmental factors: Water Air Light Temperature

37 Environmental Factors
Water imbibition (absorption of water) Tough seed coat Scarifying seeds Air is needed for respiration Seeds are viable or alive

38 Environmental Factors
Light Some seeds need light while others do not Seeds must have the right temperature to germinate

39 Asexual Propagation Cutting vegetative parts of the plant:
leaf cuttings root cuttings stem cuttings layering grafting T-budding tissue culture (micropropagation)

40 Stem Cutting

41 Assignment Complete the Self Evaluation on page 331 to 333 sections A to D. For section D make all “False” answers true.

42 Soil and Plant Media Objective: Analyze basic soil and media requirements for growth of agricultural crops

43 Soil and Plant Media Soil is the top layer of the earth's surface
Sphagunm moss root growth Perlite volcanic glass starting new plants media mixes

44 Soil and Plant Media Vermiculite mineral mica-type material
stating plant seeds cuttings media mixes

45 Soil and Plant Media Peat Moss used in media mixes

46 Soil pH Improper pH affects availability of nutrients
limits plant intake Alkaline Acid Neutral 2 5 7 8 10

47 Change to acidic by adding sulfer or aluminum sulfate
Amending soil pH High Alkalinity Change to acidic by adding sulfer or aluminum sulfate

48 Change to more alkaline by adding lime
Amending soil pH High Acid Change to more alkaline by adding lime

49 Amending soil pH Lime is usually applied as finely ground dolomitic limestone calcium magnesium

50 Fertilizers Objective: Explain nutrient requirements and soil amendments needed for growth of agricultural crops

51 Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium
Fertilizers N-P-K Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium Example:

52 Fertilizers Fertilizers must become soluble (liquid form) before they can be used by plants Organic fertilizers Manure Bone meal (phosphorus) Soybean meal

53 Fertilizers Organic fertilizers Inorganic slow acting long lasting
lacking some primary nutrients Inorganic High level of nutrients

54 Plant ID for Agriscience
Plant Identification Plant ID for Agriscience

55 Chlorophytum comosum COMMON NAME: Spider plant
FOLIAGE: arching leaves with cascading wiry stems FLOWERS: small white flowers ID FEATURE: many times will contain tiny plantlets at the apex of leaves

56 Chlorophytum comosum

57 Euphorbia pulcherrima
COMMON NAME: Poinsettia FORM: shrub FOLIAGE: large alternate leaves with or without teeth on the margin FLOWER: cup-shaped flowers in a cluster above the showy red, pink, or creamy leaf bracts with a large yellow gland on the rim of the flower

58 Euphorbia pulcherrima

59 Euphorbia pulcherrima
Red petals are actually bracts, not flowers.

60 Hedera helix COMMON NAME: English Ivy
FORM: a vine climbing by aerial rootlets or a prostrate groundcover FOLIAGE: leaves are dark green with white veins, leathery evergreen foliage, alternate leaf arrangement, 1.5 to 4” long, juvenile leaves are 3 to 5 lobed and adult leaves are not lobed

61 Hedera helix

62 Hedera helix

63 Liriope muscari COMMON NAME: Liriope
FORM: grass-like perennial 12 to 18 inch tall clumps FOLIAGE: strap-like, arching, glossy, dark green leaves (to 1” wide) FLOWERS: erect, showy flower spikes with tiered whorls of dense, violet-purple flowers

64 Liriope muscari

65 Liriope muscari

66 Nephrolepis exaltata COMMON NAME: Boston Fern
FORM: evergreen fern, up to 5 feet tall Reproduces by spores located on the bottom side of leaves

67 Nephrolepis exaltata

68 Nephrolepis exaltata

69 Philodendron scandens
COMMON NAME: Parlor Ivy FORM: trailing growth form FOLIAGE: Heart shaped, glossy, dark green leaves, 4” long and 3” wide

70 Philodendron scandens

71 Saintpaulia ionantha COMMON NAME: African violet
FORM: from miniature varieties of 4 inches wide, to large varieties more than 15 inches wide FOLIAGE: large, flat, succulent, pubescent leaves FLOWERS: varies in color from pink, white, blue, red and bicolor

72 Saintpaulia ionantha

73 Saintpaulia ionantha

74 Saintpaulia ionantha

75 Spathiphyllum cv. COMMON NAME: Peace Lily FORM: perennial herb
FOLIAGE: leaves are basal, elongated, pointed at both ends dark green with conspicuously indented veins FLOWERS: small on spadix surrounded by a white or greenish, flat or concave spathe

76 Spathiphyllum cv.

77 Spathiphyllum cv.

78 Tradescantia zebrina COMMON NAME: Purple Wandering Jew
FORM: trailing vine-like plant, vines can grow to several feet in length FOLIAGE: 2” wide and 4”long leaves that are purple with silver stripes

79 Tradescantia zebrina

80 Tradescantia zebrina

81 This is actually a green variety of wandering jew.
Tradescantia zebrina This is actually a green variety of wandering jew.

82 Viola X wittrockiana COMMON NAME: pansy
FORM: low, bushy growing habit with a height of .25 to .75 feet tall and a width of .5 to .75 feet FLOWERS: white, yellow, black, brown, lavender, purple, blue, pink, often with blotches that resemble animals’ faces

83 Viola X wittrockiana

84 Viola X wittrockiana

85 Viola X wittrockiana

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