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Anatomy and Physiology- Unit C

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1 Anatomy and Physiology- Unit C

2 Discuss the role of major systems of small animals.
Essential Standard 5.00 Discuss the role of major systems of small animals.

3 Objective 5.01 Discuss the role of major body systems of small animals.

4 Basic Anatomy Terminology
Cheek- fleshy side of the face Dewlap- loose skin under the chin (female rabbits) Elbow- upper joint of the front leg Flank- fleshy part of the side between ribs and rump (croup) Foot pad- part that the animal walks on Guard hair- longer coarse hair above the shorter under fur (protection from rain and cold)

5 Basic Anatomy Terminology
Hock- tarsal joint halfway up the hind limb Muzzle- projecting jaw (nose and mouth) Nose pad Tip of the nose Used for investigating food and unfamiliar objects Called the nose leather in cats

6 Basic Anatomy Terminology
Rump- upper rounded part of the hindquarter (a.k.a. croup) Shoulder- above the elbow of the fore leg Stifle- joint above the hock Thigh- area between the rump and hock Whiskers- long hairs growing near the mouth

7 Basic Anatomy Terminology- Birds
Crown top of the head Ear covert feathers covering the ears Nape back of the neck Orbital ring ring around the eye

8 Basic Anatomy Terminology- Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles
Brille transparent layer covering eyes Eyelid for snakes Fins Web of skin supported with bone or cartilage rods Enables fish to move through water

9 Basic Anatomy Terminology- Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles
Gills Major organ of the respiratory system Breath without lungs Scales Modified portion of the epidermal layer Provides protection Fish and reptiles Scutes Epidermal scales found on turtles

10 Skeletal System Purpose-to protect vital body organs and give form or shape to the body Skull protects brain Ribs protect lungs and internal organs Spinal column or backbone protects the spinal cord and provides shape to the animal.

11 Skeletal System Axial skeleton Vertebral column Ribs Sternum skull

12 Dog Skeleton

13 Dog Skeleton

14 Skeletal System Pectoral limb front limbs shoulders, legs and feet
scapula (shoulder blade) humerus (arm) radius and ulna (forearm) carpals, metacarpals and phalanges (toes)


16 http://www. biology. ualberta. ca/courses. hp/zoo. 225/Catskeleton

17 Skeletal System Pelvic limb rear legs and pelvic bones hooks pin bones
femur (upper leg bone) tibia and fibula (lower leg bones) Tarsals (hocks) Metatarsals (feet) Phalanges (toes)

18 Rabbit Skeleton

19 Rabbit Skeleton

20 Skeletal System-Birds
Have some unique bones unlike mammals Most have a skull bone that elongates toward the front of the head Some have a skull with an upper beak fused to it while other birds have hinges on both upper and lower mandibles giving it more flexibility

21 http://www. enchantedlearning. com/subjects/birds/printouts/Skeleton

22 Internal Anatomy Heart major organ in the circulatory system
3 muscle layers

23 Circulatory System Myocardium Endocardium Epicardium
second layer muscle that makes up the thickness of the heart Endocardium thin layer inside myocardium Epicardium thin cover over the myocardium Other parts of the circulatory system are the arteries, capillaries, veins and blood

24 Layers of the Heart

25 Heart

26 Circulatory System- Functions
Transports nutrients metabolic waste oxygen Protects against microbes and injury

27 Kidneys and Bladder Part of the excretory system
rids the body of waste maintain chemical composition volume of blood regulates tissue fluid

28 Stomach and Intestines
Major part of digestive system breaks food down into smaller pieces to be used by the body Nutrients are gleaned from these food materials

29 Lungs Part of the respiratory system
oxygen is taken in by the nose, passed on to the lungs and then goes into the blood

30 Nervous System Brains, spinal cord, and nerves
Coordinator of all body activities Regulates other systems Controls memory and learning

31 Reproductive system Ovaries and testes
Egg Sperm Help produce new individuals of the same species

32 Muscular System Muscles Movement Posture Support Produces heat

33 Digestive System Single-stomached Monogastric
includes all of the small animals Cats Dogs Rabbits Birds

34 Rabbits Non-ruminant herbivores Consumes large amounts of roughage
Large cecum and colon between the small and large intestines contains bacteria

35 Rabbit Digestive System

36 Rabbits Rabbits eat undigested feces Coprophagy
Usually occurs late night or early morning Makes use of undigested material so they can make full use of bacteria in cecum

37 Birds Lack teeth Gizzard Saliva is added to aid in swallowing
Very little breakdown in the mouth Gizzard Largest digestive organ Grinds and crushes

38 Digestive System- Bird

39 Digestive Process of Non-Ruminants
Food is broken down in mouth (except birds) Passes to the stomach Small Intestine Primary site of absorption Large Intestine Absorption of Water Addition of mucus

40 Digestive Process Food is broken down in the mouth (except birds), stomach (gizzard), and then passed into the small intestine. Primary site for digestion Absorption of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

41 Digestive Process Undigested food passes from the small intestine into the large intestine Absorption of water Addition of mucus to aid in waste passage

42 Fish Digestive System Systems vary
Type of feed determines teeth Some fish swallow their prey whole while others chew it up

43 Fish digestive system

44 Reproduction in Small Animals
Sexual Reproduction is the union of egg and sperm to product a new animal. Two parents required: Male furnishes sperm Female supplies egg or ovum

45 Sexual Terminology Conception Estrus
Creation of new life by fertilization Union of egg and sperm Estrus Heat period Female is receptive to breeding Stand for mating

46 Estrus- Stand for mating

47 Sexual Terminology Gestation Ovulation Parturition Period of pregnancy
Begins at conception ends at parturition Ovulation Release of egg Parturition Process of giving birth

48 Female Reproductive Anatomy
Ovary Primary reproductive organ Produces the female gamete (egg) Gamete Sex cell that unites with other sex cells Embryo Developing young Mammals Enters uterus after 3-5 days

49 Female Reproductive Anatomy
Uterus Place of embryo growth and development Cervix Part of uterus that contains rings Cervical mucus Seals uterus during pregnancy

50 Female Reproductive Anatomy
Vagina Reproductive passageway Urine excretion Vulva External opening of reproductive tract

51 Male Reproductive Anatomy
Testicle Primary organ Produces male gametes Externally held in scrotum Controls temperature Sheath Fold of skin Protective covering

52 Objective 12.02 Use principals of reproductive physiology to determine gestation characteristics in small animals

53 Gestation Time from conception to parturition (birth)
Varies for each species General Characteristics Increase size of breast and abdomen and appetite Restlessness End of gestation

54 End of Gestation Pocket pets and rabbits Dogs and cats
Nesting box should be provided Wood shavings Straw Paper Dogs and cats Birthing box One to three weeks prior Helps them to get comfortable with the setting

55 Gestation Period Species Period (days) Cats 51-65 (7-9 weeks) Dogs
Rabbits 30-32 (4-4.5 weeks) Hamsters 16 Gerbils 24-26 Rats 21-24 Mice Guinea Pig 56-74 Ferrets 42

56 Examine the role of nutrition in the support of animal life.
Essential Standard 6.00 Examine the role of nutrition in the support of animal life.

57 Objective 6.01 Discuss the nutritional requirements of small animals including deficiency symptoms and functions.

58 Nutrition Process by which animals receive a proper and balanced food and water ration so it can grow, maintain its body, reproduce, and perform.

59 Nutrients Substance or feedstuff that is necessary for an organism to live and grow Single group of foods of the same general chemical composition that supports animal life There are six basic nutrients

60 Water More important nutrient than any other nutrient
makes up 55-65% of an animal’s body

61 Water Aids in digestion Dissolves and transports nutrients
Regulates body temperature Carries waste from the body Supports respiration

62 Proteins Complex nutrients composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Develop and repairing body organs and tissues muscles, nerves, skin, hair, hooves, and feathers

63 Proteins Production of milk, wool, and eggs
Reproduction process of the developing fetus Developing the young Transmitting DNA

64 Carbohydrates Converting of food into energy
Made up of chemical elements Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Supports breathing and digesting

65 Carbohydrates Production of heat for body warmth Stores fat
Types of carbohydrates Sugars Starch fiber

66 Fats Chemical elements of
Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Same elements as carbohydrates but different combinations

67 Fats Fats contain 2.25 times more energy
Aid in absorbing fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K Provides the essential fatty acids needed in an animal’s diet

68 Vitamins Organic substances needed for specific biochemical reactions
A,B, C, D, E and K Needed in small amounts

69 Vitamins Regulation of body glands Digestive system Absorption
Metabolism The chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life. In metabolism some substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes while other substances, necessary for life, are synthesized.

70 Minerals Supply the material for building the skeleton and producing regulators such as enzymes and hormones Divided into 2 groups Macro Micro

71 Macro vs. Micro Macro Micro
Seven major minerals needed in largest quantity and most likely lacking in the ration Micro Nine trace minerals needed in small amounts

72 Macro-minerals Phosphorus Calcium Sulfur Magnesium Potassium
Sodium and chlorine Sulfur Magnesium

73 Micro-minerals Iron Iodine Copper Cobalt Manganese Zinc Molybdenum
Selenium Fluorine

74 Nutrient Deficiencies
Slow growth (common of all nutrients) Water deficiency Overheating slowdown in normal body functions occurs Carbohydrates lack of energy Lack of normal body functions loss of body heat

75 Nutrient Deficiencies
Proteins Normal growth development and repairing of body organs ex: muscles, nerves, skin, hair, hooves, and feathers suffers Protein deficiency may result Anorexia Anemia Edema Slow growth rate Low birth weight of young Lower milk production Decreased feed efficiency

76 Nutrient Deficiencies
Fats Provides energy aids in absorption of fat-soluble vitamins Vitamins various body functions will suffer when vitamins are lacking Depends on the vitamins in question

77 Nutrient Deficiencies
Mineral deficiency low rate of gains poor feed efficiency decreased reproduction decrease in milk, meat, eggs, and wool production

78 Objective 6.02 Distinguish between feeding programs for small animals.

79 Nutrient Use Maintenance Growth keeping constant
no gain or loss of weight usually high in carbohydrates and fats Growth increase in body size rations high in energy and protein

80 Nutrient Use Reproduction
Failures are a major result from poor nutrition Contains a large amount of protein, minerals, and vitamins Improper nutrition can affect conception rates and breeding ability

81 Reproduction Babies that are underweight at birth, or which become an aborted fetus are often the result of improper nutrition to female during gestation

82 Nutrient Use Lactation Time during which females are producing milk
Requires the proper nutrients to have large milk production

83 Lactation Diet high in protein, calcium, and phosphorus.
The same nutrients contained in the milk are the same needed by a lactating female

84 Nutrient Use Work and activity
Increased amounts of fats and carbohydrates are needed in a working diet to supply the extra energy needed Hunting dogs need special diets because they require energy to chase after game

85 Feeding Terminology Diet Amount and type of feedstuff is based upon:
Feed and water that an animal uses Amount and type of feedstuff is based upon: Animal Needs Kind of and amounts of nutrients contained in feed Palatability- digestible and appeals to the animal A good nutritious feed is only good if it is eaten

86 Feeding Terminology Feed classifications Roughages (or forages)
made up of leaves and the plants tender stems

87 Feeding Terminology Concentrates
recommended for small animals as a regular part of their diet High energy Corn, wheat, sorghum, barley, rye, oats High protein Soybean meal, cottonseed oil meal, sunflower meal

88 Feeding Terminology Supplements Ration contains a specific nutrient
feed that contains the right amount and proportion of nutrients

89 Specific Diets Dogs and Cats Commercial feed is the best
Puppies need diet higher in protein than adults and food intake is regulated by activity Cats need 2X the protein of dogs 10% of their diet should be fat

90 Rabbits Pellet type of commercial feed is best
Avoid feeding too much leafy green vegetables

91 Pocket Pets Best to use pellet type commercial feed
If mixing ration; should have a wide range of food

92 Pocket Pets Gerbils Rats Ferrets Need a little green food in diet
Can have dog food substituted Ferrets Can eat cat food

93 Pocket Pets Mice Guinea pigs Will not overeat
Need solid food to dull their teeth and a certain amount of Vitamin C

94 Amphibians & Reptiles Prefer to eat animals if large enough Tadpoles
eat pellets of rabbit, dog, or cat food Turtles Pieces of liver Strawberries and other fruits

95 Amphibians & Reptiles Snakes (in captivity) Lizards
Full grown can learn to eat canned dog food Variety of insects Baby rodents Frogs and toads Lizards Most eat insects

96 Birds Diet mostly consists of seeds
Including cereal seeds and oil seeds Fruit and nectar birds Oranges Grapes Apple slices

97 Fish Diet is affected by water temperature
Higher temperature Increased food intake Variety of food should be given to decrease boredom

98 Fish Amount fish is fed should be amount it can eat in a few minutes to avoid contaminating water Smaller fish Flaked food Larger Fish Shrimp Krill Plankton

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