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Anatomy and Physiology- Unit C Essential Standard 5.00 Discuss the role of major systems of small animals.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Physiology- Unit C Essential Standard 5.00 Discuss the role of major systems of small animals."— Presentation transcript:


2 Anatomy and Physiology- Unit C

3 Essential Standard 5.00 Discuss the role of major systems of small animals.

4 Objective 5.01 Discuss the role of major body systems of small animals.

5 Basic Anatomy Terminology Cheek- fleshy side of the face Dewlap- loose skin under the chin (female rabbits) Elbow- upper joint of the front leg Flank- fleshy part of the side between ribs and rump (croup) Foot pad- part that the animal walks on Guard hair- longer coarse hair above the shorter under fur (protection from rain and cold)

6 Basic Anatomy Terminology Hock- tarsal joint halfway up the hind limb Muzzle- projecting jaw (nose and mouth) Nose pad Tip of the nose Used for investigating food and unfamiliar objects Called the nose leather in cats

7 Basic Anatomy Terminology Rump- upper rounded part of the hindquarter (a.k.a. croup) Shoulder- above the elbow of the fore leg Stifle- joint above the hock Thigh- area between the rump and hock Whiskers- long hairs growing near the mouth

8 Basic Anatomy Terminology- Birds Crown top of the head Ear covert feathers covering the ears Nape back of the neck Orbital ring ring around the eye

9 Basic Anatomy Terminology- Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles Brille transparent layer covering eyes Eyelid for snakes Fins Web of skin supported with bone or cartilage rods Enables fish to move through water

10 Basic Anatomy Terminology- Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles Gills Major organ of the respiratory system Breath without lungs Scales Modified portion of the epidermal layer Provides protection Fish and reptiles Scutes Epidermal scales found on turtles

11 Skeletal System Purpose-to protect vital body organs and give form or shape to the body Skull protects brain Ribs protect lungs and internal organs Spinal column or backbone protects the spinal cord and provides shape to the animal.

12 Skeletal System Axial skeleton Vertebral column Ribs Sternum skull

13 Dog Skeleton

14 Dog Skeleton

15 Skeletal System Pectoral limb front limbs shoulders, legs and feet scapula (shoulder blade) humerus (arm) radius and ulna (forearm) carpals, metacarpals and phalanges (toes)



18 Skeletal System Pelvic limb rear legs and pelvic bones hooks pin bones femur (upper leg bone) tibia and fibula (lower leg bones) Tarsals (hocks) Metatarsals (feet) Phalanges (toes)

19 Rabbit Skeleton

20 Rabbit Skeleton

21 Skeletal System-Birds Have some unique bones unlike mammals Most have a skull bone that elongates toward the front of the head Some have a skull with an upper beak fused to it while other birds have hinges on both upper and lower mandibles giving it more flexibility


23 Internal Anatomy Heart major organ in the circulatory system 3 muscle layers

24 Circulatory System Myocardium second layer muscle that makes up the thickness of the heart Endocardium thin layer inside myocardium Epicardium thin cover over the myocardium Other parts of the circulatory system are the arteries, capillaries, veins and blood

25 Layers of the Heart

26 Heart

27 Circulatory System- Functions Transports nutrients metabolic waste oxygen Protects against microbes and injury

28 Kidneys and Bladder Part of the excretory system rids the body of waste maintain chemical composition volume of blood regulates tissue fluid

29 Stomach and Intestines Major part of digestive system breaks food down into smaller pieces to be used by the body Nutrients are gleaned from these food materials

30 Lungs Part of the respiratory system oxygen is taken in by the nose, passed on to the lungs and then goes into the blood

31 Nervous System Brains, spinal cord, and nerves Coordinator of all body activities Regulates other systems Controls memory and learning

32 Reproductive system Ovaries and testes Egg Sperm Help produce new individuals of the same species

33 Muscular System Muscles Movement Posture Support Produces heat

34 Digestive System Single-stomached Monogastric includes all of the small animals Cats Dogs Rabbits Birds

35 Rabbits Non-ruminant herbivores Consumes large amounts of roughage Large cecum and colon between the small and large intestines contains bacteria

36 Rabbit Digestive System

37 Rabbits Rabbits eat undigested feces Coprophagy Usually occurs late night or early morning Makes use of undigested material so they can make full use of bacteria in cecum

38 Birds Lack teeth Saliva is added to aid in swallowing Very little breakdown in the mouth Gizzard Largest digestive organ Grinds and crushes

39 Digestive System- Bird

40 Digestive Process of Non-Ruminants Food is broken down in mouth (except birds) Passes to the stomach Small Intestine Primary site of absorption Large Intestine Absorption of Water Addition of mucus

41 Digestive Process Food is broken down in the mouth (except birds), stomach (gizzard), and then passed into the small intestine. Primary site for digestion Absorption of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

42 Digestive Process Undigested food passes from the small intestine into the large intestine Absorption of water Addition of mucus to aid in waste passage

43 Fish Digestive System Systems vary Type of feed determines teeth Some fish swallow their prey whole while others chew it up

44 Fish digestive system

45 Reproduction in Small Animals Sexual Reproduction is the union of egg and sperm to product a new animal. Two parents required: Male furnishes sperm Female supplies egg or ovum

46 Sexual Terminology Conception Creation of new life by fertilization Union of egg and sperm Estrus Heat period Female is receptive to breeding Stand for mating

47 Estrus- Stand for mating

48 Sexual Terminology Gestation Period of pregnancy Begins at conception ends at parturition Ovulation Release of egg Parturition Process of giving birth

49 Female Reproductive Anatomy Ovary Primary reproductive organ Produces the female gamete (egg) Gamete Sex cell that unites with other sex cells Embryo Developing young Mammals Enters uterus after 3-5 days

50 Female Reproductive Anatomy Uterus Place of embryo growth and development Cervix Part of uterus that contains rings Cervical mucus Seals uterus during pregnancy

51 Female Reproductive Anatomy Vagina Reproductive passageway Urine excretion Vulva External opening of reproductive tract

52 Male Reproductive Anatomy Testicle Primary organ Produces male gametes Externally held in scrotum Controls temperature Sheath Fold of skin Protective covering

53 Objective Use principals of reproductive physiology to determine gestation characteristics in small animals

54 Gestation Time from conception to parturition (birth) Varies for each species General Characteristics Increase size of breast and abdomen and appetite Restlessness End of gestation

55 End of Gestation Pocket pets and rabbits Nesting box should be provided Wood shavings Straw Paper Dogs and cats Birthing box One to three weeks prior Helps them to get comfortable with the setting

56 Gestation Period SpeciesPeriod (days) Cats51-65 (7-9 weeks) Dogs56-70 (9-10 weeks) Rabbits30-32 (4-4.5 weeks) Hamsters16 Gerbils24-26 Rats21-24 Mice21-24 Guinea Pig56-74 Ferrets42

57 Essential Standard 6.00 Examine the role of nutrition in the support of animal life.

58 Objective 6.01 Discuss the nutritional requirements of small animals including deficiency symptoms and functions.

59 Nutrition Process by which animals receive a proper and balanced food and water ration so it can grow, maintain its body, reproduce, and perform.

60 Nutrients Substance or feedstuff that is necessary for an organism to live and grow Single group of foods of the same general chemical composition that supports animal life There are six basic nutrients

61 Water More important nutrient than any other nutrient makes up 55-65% of an animals body

62 Water Aids in digestion Dissolves and transports nutrients Regulates body temperature Carries waste from the body Supports respiration

63 Proteins Complex nutrients composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Develop and repairing body organs and tissues muscles, nerves, skin, hair, hooves, and feathers

64 Proteins Production of milk, wool, and eggs Reproduction process of the developing fetus Developing the young Transmitting DNA

65 Carbohydrates Converting of food into energy Made up of chemical elements Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Supports breathing and digesting

66 Carbohydrates Production of heat for body warmth Stores fat Types of carbohydrates Sugars Starch fiber

67 Fats Chemical elements of Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Same elements as carbohydrates but different combinations

68 Fats Fats contain 2.25 times more energy Aid in absorbing fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K Provides the essential fatty acids needed in an animals diet

69 Vitamins Organic substances needed for specific biochemical reactions A,B, C, D, E and K Needed in small amounts

70 Vitamins Regulation of body glands Digestive system Absorption Metabolism The chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life. In metabolism some substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes while other substances, necessary for life, are synthesized.

71 Minerals Supply the material for building the skeleton and producing regulators such as enzymes and hormones Divided into 2 groups Macro Micro

72 Macro vs. Micro Macro Seven major minerals needed in largest quantity and most likely lacking in the ration Micro Nine trace minerals needed in small amounts

73 Macro-minerals Phosphorus Calcium Potassium Sodium and chlorine Sulfur Magnesium

74 Micro-minerals Iron Iodine Copper Cobalt Manganese Zinc Molybdenum Selenium Fluorine

75 Nutrient Deficiencies Slow growth (common of all nutrients) Water deficiency Overheating slowdown in normal body functions occurs Carbohydrates lack of energy Lack of normal body functions loss of body heat

76 Nutrient Deficiencies Proteins Normal growth development and repairing of body organs ex: muscles, nerves, skin, hair, hooves, and feathers suffers Protein deficiency may result Anorexia Anemia Edema Slow growth rate Low birth weight of young Lower milk production Decreased feed efficiency

77 Nutrient Deficiencies Fats Provides energy aids in absorption of fat-soluble vitamins Vitamins various body functions will suffer when vitamins are lacking Depends on the vitamins in question

78 Nutrient Deficiencies Mineral deficiency low rate of gains poor feed efficiency decreased reproduction decrease in milk, meat, eggs, and wool production

79 Objective 6.02 Distinguish between feeding programs for small animals.

80 Nutrient Use Maintenance keeping constant no gain or loss of weight usually high in carbohydrates and fats Growth increase in body size rations high in energy and protein

81 Nutrient Use Reproduction Failures are a major result from poor nutrition Contains a large amount of protein, minerals, and vitamins Improper nutrition can affect conception rates and breeding ability

82 Reproduction Babies that are underweight at birth, or which become an aborted fetus are often the result of improper nutrition to female during gestation

83 Nutrient Use Lactation Time during which females are producing milk Requires the proper nutrients to have large milk production

84 Lactation Diet high in protein, calcium, and phosphorus. The same nutrients contained in the milk are the same needed by a lactating female

85 Nutrient Use Work and activity Increased amounts of fats and carbohydrates are needed in a working diet to supply the extra energy needed Hunting dogs need special diets because they require energy to chase after game

86 Feeding Terminology Diet Feed and water that an animal uses Amount and type of feedstuff is based upon: Animal Needs Kind of and amounts of nutrients contained in feed Palatability- digestible and appeals to the animal A good nutritious feed is only good if it is eaten

87 Feeding Terminology Feed classifications Roughages (or forages) made up of leaves and the plants tender stems

88 Feeding Terminology Concentrates recommended for small animals as a regular part of their diet High energy Corn, wheat, sorghum, barley, rye, oats High protein Soybean meal, cottonseed oil meal, sunflower meal

89 Feeding Terminology Supplements contains a specific nutrient Ration feed that contains the right amount and proportion of nutrients

90 Specific Diets Dogs and Cats Commercial feed is the best Puppies need diet higher in protein than adults and food intake is regulated by activity Cats need 2X the protein of dogs 10% of their diet should be fat

91 Rabbits Pellet type of commercial feed is best Avoid feeding too much leafy green vegetables

92 Pocket Pets Best to use pellet type commercial feed If mixing ration; should have a wide range of food

93 Pocket Pets Gerbils Need a little green food in diet Rats Can have dog food substituted Ferrets Can eat cat food

94 Pocket Pets Mice Will not overeat Guinea pigs Need solid food to dull their teeth and a certain amount of Vitamin C

95 Amphibians & Reptiles Prefer to eat animals if large enough Tadpoles eat pellets of rabbit, dog, or cat food Turtles Pieces of liver Strawberries and other fruits

96 Amphibians & Reptiles Snakes (in captivity) Full grown can learn to eat canned dog food Variety of insects Baby rodents Frogs and toads Lizards Most eat insects

97 Birds Diet mostly consists of seeds Including cereal seeds and oil seeds Fruit and nectar birds Oranges Grapes Apple slices

98 Fish Diet is affected by water temperature Higher temperature Increased food intake Variety of food should be given to decrease boredom

99 Fish Amount fish is fed should be amount it can eat in a few minutes to avoid contaminating water Smaller fish Flaked food Larger Fish Shrimp Krill Plankton

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