2Discuss the role of major systems of small animals. Essential Standard 5.00Discuss the role of major systems of small animals.
3Objective 5.01Discuss the role of major body systems of small animals.
4Basic Anatomy Terminology Cheek- fleshy side of the faceDewlap- loose skin under the chin (female rabbits)Elbow- upper joint of the front legFlank- fleshy part of the side between ribs and rump (croup)Foot pad- part that the animal walks onGuard hair- longer coarse hair above the shorter under fur (protection from rain and cold)
5Basic Anatomy Terminology Hock- tarsal joint halfway up the hind limbMuzzle- projecting jaw (nose and mouth)Nose padTip of the noseUsed for investigating food and unfamiliar objectsCalled the nose leather in cats
6Basic Anatomy Terminology Rump- upper rounded part of the hindquarter (a.k.a. croup)Shoulder- above the elbow of the fore legStifle- joint above the hockThigh- area between the rump and hockWhiskers- long hairs growing near the mouth
7Basic Anatomy Terminology- Birds Crowntop of the headEar covertfeathers covering the earsNapeback of the neckOrbital ringring around the eye
8Basic Anatomy Terminology- Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles Brilletransparent layer covering eyesEyelid for snakesFinsWeb of skin supported with bone or cartilage rodsEnables fish to move through water
9Basic Anatomy Terminology- Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles GillsMajor organ of the respiratory systemBreath without lungsScalesModified portion of the epidermal layerProvides protectionFish and reptilesScutesEpidermal scales found on turtles
10Skeletal SystemPurpose-to protect vital body organs and give form or shape to the bodySkull protects brainRibs protect lungs and internal organsSpinal column or backbone protects the spinal cord and provides shape to the animal.
20Skeletal System-Birds Have some unique bones unlike mammalsMost have a skull bone that elongates toward the front of the headSome have a skull with an upper beak fused to it while other birds have hinges on both upper and lower mandibles giving it more flexibility
22Internal Anatomy Heart major organ in the circulatory system 3 muscle layers
23Circulatory System Myocardium Endocardium Epicardium second layer muscle that makes up the thickness of the heartEndocardiumthin layer inside myocardiumEpicardiumthin cover over the myocardiumOther parts of the circulatory system are the arteries, capillaries, veins and blood
39Digestive Process of Non-Ruminants Food is broken down in mouth (except birds)Passes to the stomachSmall IntestinePrimary site of absorptionLarge IntestineAbsorption of WaterAddition of mucus
40Digestive ProcessFood is broken down in the mouth (except birds), stomach (gizzard), and then passed into the small intestine.Primary site for digestionAbsorption of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
41Digestive ProcessUndigested food passes from the small intestine into the large intestineAbsorption of waterAddition of mucus to aid in waste passage
42Fish Digestive System Systems vary Type of feed determines teethSome fish swallow their prey whole while others chew it up
47Sexual Terminology Gestation Ovulation Parturition Period of pregnancy Begins at conception ends at parturitionOvulationRelease of eggParturitionProcess of giving birth
48Female Reproductive Anatomy OvaryPrimary reproductive organProduces the female gamete (egg)GameteSex cell that unites with other sex cellsEmbryoDeveloping youngMammalsEnters uterus after 3-5 days
49Female Reproductive Anatomy UterusPlace of embryo growth and developmentCervixPart of uterus that contains ringsCervical mucusSeals uterus during pregnancy
50Female Reproductive Anatomy VaginaReproductive passagewayUrine excretionVulvaExternal opening of reproductive tract
51Male Reproductive Anatomy TesticlePrimary organProduces male gametesExternally held in scrotumControls temperatureSheathFold of skinProtective covering
52Objective 12.02Use principals of reproductive physiology to determine gestation characteristics in small animals
53Gestation Time from conception to parturition (birth) Varies for each speciesGeneral CharacteristicsIncrease size of breast and abdomen and appetiteRestlessnessEnd of gestation
54End of Gestation Pocket pets and rabbits Dogs and cats Nesting box should be providedWood shavingsStrawPaperDogs and catsBirthing boxOne to three weeks priorHelps them to get comfortable with the setting
55Gestation Period Species Period (days) Cats 51-65 (7-9 weeks) Dogs Rabbits30-32 (4-4.5 weeks)Hamsters16Gerbils24-26Rats21-24MiceGuinea Pig56-74Ferrets42
56Examine the role of nutrition in the support of animal life. Essential Standard 6.00Examine the role of nutrition in the support of animal life.
57Objective 6.01Discuss the nutritional requirements of small animals including deficiency symptoms and functions.
58NutritionProcess by which animals receive a proper and balanced food and water ration so it can grow, maintain its body, reproduce, and perform.
59NutrientsSubstance or feedstuff that is necessary for an organism to live and growSingle group of foods of the same general chemical composition that supports animal lifeThere are six basic nutrients
60Water More important nutrient than any other nutrient makes up 55-65% of an animal’s body
61Water Aids in digestion Dissolves and transports nutrients Regulates body temperatureCarries waste from the bodySupports respiration
62ProteinsComplex nutrients composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogenDevelop and repairing body organs and tissuesmuscles, nerves, skin, hair, hooves, and feathers
63Proteins Production of milk, wool, and eggs Reproduction process of the developing fetusDeveloping the youngTransmitting DNA
64Carbohydrates Converting of food into energy Made up of chemical elementsCarbonHydrogenOxygenSupports breathing and digesting
65Carbohydrates Production of heat for body warmth Stores fat Types of carbohydratesSugarsStarchfiber
66Fats Chemical elements of CarbonHydrogenOxygenSame elements as carbohydrates but different combinations
67Fats Fats contain 2.25 times more energy Aid in absorbing fat-soluble vitaminsA, D, E and KProvides the essential fatty acids needed in an animal’s diet
68Vitamins Organic substances needed for specific biochemical reactions A,B, C, D, E and KNeeded in small amounts
69Vitamins Regulation of body glands Digestive system Absorption MetabolismThe chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life. In metabolism some substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes while other substances, necessary for life, are synthesized.
70MineralsSupply the material for building the skeleton and producing regulators such as enzymes and hormonesDivided into 2 groupsMacroMicro
71Macro vs. Micro Macro Micro Seven major minerals needed in largest quantity and most likely lacking in the rationMicroNine trace minerals needed in small amounts
72Macro-minerals Phosphorus Calcium Sulfur Magnesium Potassium Sodium and chlorineSulfurMagnesium
73Micro-minerals Iron Iodine Copper Cobalt Manganese Zinc Molybdenum SeleniumFluorine
74Nutrient Deficiencies Slow growth(common of all nutrients)Water deficiencyOverheatingslowdown in normal body functions occursCarbohydrateslack of energyLack of normal body functionsloss of body heat
75Nutrient Deficiencies ProteinsNormal growth development and repairing of body organs ex: muscles, nerves, skin, hair, hooves, and feathers suffersProtein deficiency may resultAnorexiaAnemiaEdemaSlow growth rateLow birth weight of youngLower milk productionDecreased feed efficiency
76Nutrient Deficiencies FatsProvides energyaids in absorption of fat-soluble vitaminsVitaminsvarious body functions will suffer when vitamins are lackingDepends on the vitamins in question
77Nutrient Deficiencies Mineral deficiencylow rate of gainspoor feed efficiencydecreased reproductiondecrease in milk, meat, eggs, and wool production
78Objective 6.02Distinguish between feeding programs for small animals.
79Nutrient Use Maintenance Growth keeping constant no gain or loss of weightusually high in carbohydrates and fatsGrowthincrease in body sizerations high in energy and protein
80Nutrient Use Reproduction Failures are a major result from poor nutritionContains a large amount of protein, minerals, and vitaminsImproper nutrition can affect conception rates and breeding ability
81ReproductionBabies that are underweight at birth, or which become an aborted fetus are often the result of improper nutrition to female during gestation
82Nutrient Use Lactation Time during which females are producing milk Requires the proper nutrients to have large milk production
83Lactation Diet high in protein, calcium, and phosphorus. The same nutrients contained in the milk are the same needed by a lactating female
84Nutrient Use Work and activity Increased amounts of fats and carbohydrates are needed in a working diet to supply the extra energy neededHunting dogs need special diets because they require energy to chase after game
85Feeding Terminology Diet Amount and type of feedstuff is based upon: Feed and water that an animal usesAmount and type of feedstuff is based upon:Animal NeedsKind of and amounts of nutrients contained in feedPalatability- digestible and appeals to the animalA good nutritious feed is only good if it is eaten
86Feeding Terminology Feed classifications Roughages (or forages) made up of leaves and the plants tender stems
87Feeding Terminology Concentrates recommended for small animals as a regular part of their dietHigh energyCorn, wheat, sorghum, barley, rye, oatsHigh proteinSoybean meal, cottonseed oil meal, sunflower meal
88Feeding Terminology Supplements Ration contains a specific nutrient feed that contains the right amount and proportion of nutrients
89Specific Diets Dogs and Cats Commercial feed is the best Puppies need diet higher in protein than adults and food intake is regulated by activityCats need 2X the protein of dogs10% of their diet should be fat
90Rabbits Pellet type of commercial feed is best Avoid feeding too much leafy green vegetables
91Pocket Pets Best to use pellet type commercial feed If mixing ration; should have a wide range of food
92Pocket Pets Gerbils Rats Ferrets Need a little green food in diet Can have dog food substitutedFerretsCan eat cat food
93Pocket Pets Mice Guinea pigs Will not overeat Need solid food to dull their teeth and a certain amount of Vitamin C
94Amphibians & Reptiles Prefer to eat animals if large enough Tadpoles eat pellets of rabbit, dog, or cat foodTurtlesPieces of liverStrawberries and other fruits
95Amphibians & Reptiles Snakes (in captivity) Lizards Full grown can learn to eat canned dog foodVariety of insectsBaby rodentsFrogs and toadsLizardsMost eat insects
96Birds Diet mostly consists of seeds Including cereal seeds and oil seedsFruit and nectar birdsOrangesGrapesApple slices
97Fish Diet is affected by water temperature Higher temperatureIncreased food intakeVariety of food should be given to decrease boredom
98FishAmount fish is fed should be amount it can eat in a few minutes to avoid contaminating waterSmaller fishFlaked foodLarger FishShrimpKrillPlankton