Muzzle: The projecting jaw that contains the nose and mouth in some animals. Nose Pad: The tip of the nose that may be sensitive and useful for investigating food, water, or unfamiliar objects. (called nose leather in cats).
Rump: The upper rounded part of the hindquarter (also called the group). Shoulder: The part of an animal’s body just above the elbow of the foreleg.
Brille: The transparent layer permanently covering the eye that serves as the eyelid for snakes. Fins: The web of skin supported with bone or cartilage rods that enable a fish to move through the water.
Gills: The major organ of the respiratory system of fish that allows them to breathe without lungs. Scales: Extensions of the epidermal layer of skin that have been modified to provide protection. (fish and reptiles may have some type of scales).
To protect vital body organs and give form or shape to body ◦ Skull protects brain, ribs protect lungs and internal organs ◦ Spinal column or backbone protects the spinal cord and provides shape to the animal.
Structure consist of bones, cartilage, and joints.
Most birds have a skull bone that elongates toward the front of the head. Some birds have a skull with an upper beak fused to it while other birds have hinged on both upper and lower (mandibles) giving it more flexibility.
The major organ in the circulatory system ◦ Made up of three muscle layers: Myocardium: second layer muscle that makes up the thickness of the heart Endocardium: thin layer inside myocardium Epicardium: thin cover over the myocardium, or main heart muscle
Single group of foods of the same general chemical composition that supports animal life. There are 6 basic nutrients
THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT NUTRIENT!!! Animals can go without food for several days, but they need water because it is vital for proper body functions and makes up 55-65% of an animal’s body.
Dissolves and transports other nutrients, aids in digestion, and carries waste from the body. Regulates body temperature and supports breathing (respiration)
Complex nutrients composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. ◦ Helps develop and repair body organs and tissues such as muscles, nerves, skin, hair, hooves etc.
Important in the reproduction process of the developing fetus, transmitting DNA, and development of young.
Important in converting of food into energy. Carbohydrates are made up of chemical elements: carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Supports body functions, breathing, digestion, stores fat and produces heat.
Nutrition: Process by which animals receive a proper and balanced food and water ration so it can grow, maintain its body, reproduce, and perform. Nutrient: substance or part of feedstuff that is necessary for an organism to live and grow.
What is a deficiency? A lack or loss of something.
Slow growth is a common symptom of almost all nutrient deficiency.
The body becomes overheated, and a slowdown in normal body functions occurs.
Normal growth development and repairing of body organs and tissues ie.; muscles, nerves, skin, hair, hooves, and feathers suffer.
Protein deficiency may result in: anorexia, anemia, edema; slow growth rate, low birth weight of young, lower milk production and decreased feed efficiency.
Lack of energy, normal body functions, loss of body heat.
Providing energy, aiding in absorption of fat- soluble vitamins.
Various body functions will suffer when vitamins are lacking
May cause low rates of gains, feed inefficiency, decreased reproduction, decrease in milk production, and production of meat, milk, eggs, and wool.
Ruminants are considered as ‘forage consuming’, able to eat large amounts of vegetable material in a fresh, dried, or ensiled state. Ruminants have one stomach with multiple compartments.
Food material in the ruminant system is acted on by millions of bacteria and microorganisms. The bacteria and microorganisms transform low-quality protein and nitrogen compounds into essential amino acids.
largest compartment contains bacteria and microorganisms that aids in the digestive process.
Second compartment that works with the rumen to aide in the formation of cud for regurgitation. Also known as the hardware stomach because it collects nails, pieces of wire, and other swallowed objects.
The third compartment of the ruminant that removes water from food as it moves from the rumen to the fourth compartment.
referred to as the “true stomach” its function is to break down food material by muscular movement and to secrete digestive juices.
The abomasum is most like the stomach in non-ruminants or single stomached animals. The material then passes into the small intestine.
1. Non-ruminants are referred to as single- stomached or monogastric animals. 2. The digestive system of rabbits and birds are classified as non-ruminants even though their system is slightly different.
Rabbits have a digestive system similar to a horse in that they have a large cecum with bacteria present. ◦ Therefore, rabbits can eat more high-quality roughage material than other small animals. ◦ Rabbits must maintain levels of bacteria in the cecum for digestive process and health. ◦ Rabbits eat undigested feces(coprophagy) to help bacteria action.
Birds have a unique system for breaking down the seed and food they eat. ◦ Birds don’t have teeth. Saliva is added to assist with swallowing, but very little breakdown of food occurs in the mouth. ◦ The largest digestive organ for birds is the gizzard. The gizzard grinds and crushes food before passing it into the small intestine.
Food is broken down in the mouth(except birds), stomach (gizzards in birds), and then passed into the small intestine, the primary sight for the digestion and absorption of carbs, fats, and proteins.
Undigested food passes from the small intestine into the large intestine where the main activity is the absorption of water from the undigested food and addition of lubricating mucus to aid in passage of waste.
Digestive systems vary somewhat Type of feed fish eat is largely determined by the type of teeth they have. Some fish swallow prey whole while others chew up their food.
Diet: feed and water that an animal receives ◦ Amount and type feedstuff is based on what the animals needs at times, and the kinds and amt. of nutrients contained in feed. ◦ A good diet must be palatable-the diet must be digestible and appeals to the animal
Ration: a feed that contains the right amount and proportion of nutrients.
Roughages: made up of leaves and the plants tender stems. Concentrates: recommended for small animals as a regular part of their diet because it is high in energy or protein.
High energy diets include: corn, wheat, sorghum, barley, rye, and oats. High protein diets include: soybean oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, and sunflower meals.
Feed material that contains a specific nutrient
Puppies need diets higher in protein than adult dogs and food intake is regulated by activity. Cats need twice as much protein as dogs and 10% of their diet should be fat.
It is best to use a pellet type of commercial feed and avoid feeding too much leafy green veggies.
Best to use pellet type of foods and keep diet consistent. If mixing a ration; you should have a wide range of food. Various diets include: gerbils need a little green food in diet, rats can have dog food, ferrets eat cat food, mice won’t overeat, and guinea pigs need solid food to dull the teeth.
Depending on their size, amphibians and reptiles prefer to eat animals (snakes eat mice, turtles eat meat, amphibians eat earthworms, insects).
Tadpoles will eat pellets of rabbit, dog, or cat food. Turtles: pieces of liver will do, but strawberries and other fruits can also be fed. Snakes in captivity can learn to eat canned dog/cat food. Most of the lizards eat insects.
Most birds prefer a diet of seeds. ◦ Two basic types of seed included in a bird’s diet are cereal seeds and oil seeds. ◦ Fruit and nectar birds eat oranges, grapes, and apple slices.
Diet is affected by water temp. Fish generally eat more when the temp. is higher. ◦ Should be given a variety of foods so they don’t get bored ◦ Shrimp, krill, and plankton can be fed to larger fish. ◦ Flakes are good for smaller fish ◦ Amt. fish eats is related to water temp. ◦ Fish should be able to eat the food in a few minutes.
The union of egg and sperm to produce a new animal. 2 parents required: male furnishes sperm(spermatozoa or male animal sex cell) and female supplies egg or ovum. Natural insemination is the process of male depositing semen into female reproductive tract.
Conception: creation of new life by the fertilization of an egg. Estrus: the heat period when female is receptive to male and will stand for mating. Fertilization: the union of the egg and sperm Ovulation: releasing an egg for fertilization
Gestation: period of pregnancy-begins with conception and ends with parturition Parturition: process of giving birth to young pregnant: stage of baby development in reproductive tract.
Ovary: primary reproductive organ that produces the egg (female gamete) Gamete: sex cell that unites with other sex cells Embryo: (developing young) goes to the uterus in mammals after 3-5 days
Uterus: the place of embryo growth and development. Cervix: the part of the uterus that contains rings and cervical mucus to seal the uterus to keep out contaminants during pregnancy.
Vagina: the reproduction passageway and place of urine excretion. Vulva: external opening to the reproductive tract.
Testicle: primary reproductive organ and produces the male gametes sperm Two testicles are held externally in the scrotum and helps control the temp. so that testicles remain cooler than the body. Sheath: a fold of skin that is a protective covering for the penis.
Usually identified by an increase in female’s breast and abdominal size, weight, and appetite at various stages of the period. Restlessness is a usual sign that the gestation period is coming to an end and parturition (birthing) is about to take place.
A nesting box of straw, shavings, paper, etc. may be provided for pocket pets and rabbits. Care should be taken not to excite animals at birthing. Dogs and cats should be given a birthing box in a quiet location one to three weeks prior to parturition so that they may get comfortable with the setting.
Cats: 51-65 days Dogs: 56-70 days Rabbits: 28-32 days Hamsters: 30-32 days
Gerbils: 16 Days Rats: 21-24 days Mice: 21-24 days