Presentation on theme: "MPIs NCIIP Data Resources and Policy-Focused Research on Immigrant Adult Literacy and Workforce Training Needs National Coalition for Literacy February."— Presentation transcript:
MPIs NCIIP Data Resources and Policy-Focused Research on Immigrant Adult Literacy and Workforce Training Needs National Coalition for Literacy February 5, 2009 Margie McHugh, Co-Director, MPI NCIIP
The Migration Policy Institute is an independent, nonpartisan think tank in Washington, DC dedicated to the analysis of the movement of people worldwide www.migrationpolicy.org About the Migration Policy Institute
Major Program Areas: National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy US Immigration International Migration (special emphases on EU, Canada and Mexico) Migration and Development Mobility and Security About the Migration Policy Institute
Provide a crossroads for elected officials, community leaders, researchers and others who seek to understand and respond to the challenges and opportunities that todays high rates of immigration create in local communities. The National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy
Shine a spotlight Organize and strengthen a nascent field Identify and promote effective policies and practices Build the knowledge and skills of state and local elected officials and administrators The National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy
Key areas currently: State and Local Immigration Law Enforcement Adult Education and Training PreK-12 Education E Pluribus Unum Prizes The National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy
How: Policy-focused research Data Tools and Web Resources Training Convening The National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy
State ACS Fact Sheets State Legislation Database Language Portal Immigration: Data Matters NCIIP Data Resources
Michael Fix, Co-Director Margie McHugh, Co-Director Monica Arciga, Program Coordinator & Policy Analyst Jeanne Batalova, Policy Analyst & Data Hub Manager Randy Capps, Senior Policy Analyst Laureen Laglagaron, Policy Analyst Aaron Terrazas, Research Assistant Heide Spruck Wrigley, Non-Resident Fellow NCIIP Staff
Points of Departure Baby Boom Retirement No growth native labor force Global competition Mismatch and afterthought Immigration reform
Children in Immigrant Families Children in immigrant families are 23% of US children and their share has grown since 1990. Source: Migration Policy Institute, Data Hub, Historical Trends, Children in Immigrant Families; American Community Survey 2007, Census 1990, 2000. Children in immigrant families as a share of all children
Immigrants are: 12% of US residents, but 15% of US workers A much higher share of workers in many large urban areas that drive the US economy: 46% in Miami Metro Area, 45% in LA Metro, 36% in NY Metro, 28% in Houston Metro, and 23% in Chicago Metro. 21% of low-wage workers, but 48% of low-skilled workers* 51% of immigrant workers are LEP The Immigrant Work Force * Low-wage workers earned less than twice the federal minimum wage in 2007.
More States Feel the Impact of Immigration: Largest and Fastest-Growing Immigrant States
Determining Need and Investing Wisely: July 2007 Recent NCIIP Projects and Publications
Estimating Numbers and Characteristics of LEPs Using Census and UI imputations, we estimated LEPs by: - Legal status: LPR; Unauthorized - Ages: 17-24; 25 - 49; 50 – 55; 55+ (LPRs) 17-24; 25+ (Unauthorized) - Time in US: <5 years; 5- 10 years; 10+ years - Education: <5 th Grade; 5 th Grade+ Key subgroups: immigrant youth; FB nonliterate in any language
Estimating Hours of Instruction & Costs –Index Census LEP levels to National Reporting System (Levels 1– 6) –Create level 0 – No English and low literacy Target for Adults Ages 25+: Level 5 – Naturalization and Civic Participation Target for Youths Ages 17-24: Level 6 – Post-secondary schooling Time Needed: 110 hours to complete each level
ESL Need: LPRs 5.8 million LPRs need English instruction Assuming 110 hours to increase one ESL level 277 million hours per year to bring LPRs to English proficiency 1.6 billion hours over 6 years to reach English proficiency
Hours of ESL Required for LPRs by Age Hours of ESL Required for LPRs to Reach English Proficiency by Age, 2005 We assume a goal of bringing all immigrants to a level 5 English proficiency for those age 25 and older, and to a level 6 English proficiency for those age 17 to 24. Hours LPR1,662,165,884 Age 56+390,770,981 (25%) Age 50 to 55120,251,927 (7%) Age 25 to 49931,249,052 (57%) Age 17-24219,893,924 (15%) Source: MPI analysis of tabulations of 2000 census data and 2005 CPS with imputations of legal status by the Urban Institute.
ESL Need: Unauthorized 6.4 million unauthorized immigrants need English instruction Assuming 110 hours to increase one ESL level 319 million hours per year to bring unauthorized to English proficiency 1.9 billion hours over 6 years to reach English proficiency
Hours of ESL Required: Unauthorized by Age Hours of ESL Required for Unauthorized Immigrants to Reach English Proficiency by Age, 2005 We assume a goal of bringing all immigrants to a level 5 English proficiency for those age 25 and older, and to a level 6 English proficiency for those age 17 to 24. Hours Unauthorized1,913,498,299 Age 25 and older1,517,049,416 (75%) Age 17-24396,448,883 (25%) Source: MPI analysis of tabulations of 2000 census data and 2005 CPS with imputations of legal status by the Urban Institute.
Top 10 States in Hours of ESL Required (Based on 2000 Data, Combining LPRs and Unauthorized)
English Instruction Need, By English Proficiency Level Source: Migration Policy Institute estimates based on Census 2000. McHugh, Gelatt and Fix 2007. Number of lawful permanent residents and unauthorized immigrants age 17 and older in need of English Instruction. NumberPercent Age 17+12,193,007100% Level 0747,7516% Level 12,806,48323% Level 21,997,09316% Level 33,540,99729% Level 42,024,91917% Level 51,075,7649%
Determining Need and Investing Wisely: July 2007 California AEL Need, Supply and Implications for System Reform (unpublished) Recent NCIIP Projects and Publications
Only one-third of instructional need met by adult school and community college systems; problem of ring counties Adult school funding formula does not respond to demographic change Disproportionate beginner-level course supply versus intermediate and advanced compared to need Low caps on distance learning expenditures discourage innovation/expansion California AEL Need, Supply and System-Reform Issues
Determining Need and Investing Wisely: July 2007 California AEL Need, Supply and Implications for System Reform (unpublished) Uneven Progress, October 2008 Recent NCIIP Projects and Publications
Study Questions What are the employment outcomes of skilled immigrants? Do they vary by country of origin and route to permanent residency? Is downward mobility inevitable for all newly arrived skilled immigrants? For how long? How does the US compare in its integration of skilled immigrants to Canada and Europe? What are the opportunities for private and public actors?
Uneven Progress: Major Findings More than 1.3 million college-educated immigrants are unemployed or working in unskilled jobs. 22% of all college-educated immigrants – or 1 out of every 5 highly skilled immigrants – are working in unskilled jobs (e.g., construction laborers, babysitters, file clerks, etc.) Another 22% are in semi-skilled jobs (e.g., carpenters, electricians, massage therapists, etc.) 44% recent Mexican and Central American skilled immigrants, are working in unskilled jobs.
Skilled Immigrants as Taxi Drivers, Maids, and Cashiers Percentage of the College Educated in Unskilled Jobs* Notes: *Among foreign-educated, recent refers to immigrants who came to the US ten or fewer years ago, while long-term refers to immigrants who have been in the US for 11 years or longer. US educated are immigrants who have at least a BA degree and who came to the US before age 25. **Europe refers to Europe, Canada, and Oceania. Source: 2005-2006 ACS analysis from Batalova & Fix, Uneven Progress: The Employment Trajectories of Skilled Immigrants in the United States (MPI 2008). Europe**Asia Lat. America Africa
Identify adult immigrants current level of English language and literacy skills Examine the role of these skills in finding family-sustaining jobs and passing the citizenship test Discuss programs needed to assist adults to achieve their workforce, academic, family, and civics goals Assess degree to which data on English proficiency in ACS and NAAL are consistent NAAL Analysis
First- and Second-Generation Needs, Barriers and Pathways Project Current NCIIP Projects
1 st and 2 nd generation youth 16-26 in five states: CA, NY, FL, GA, WA Four sectors: health care, hospitality, information technology & construction Explore education and training programs, investments and administrative practices that affect work and wage outcomes First- and Second- Generation Pathways Project
Develop sector- and region-specific worker demand and supply analyses Create socio-demographic and labor- force profile of 1 st and 2 nd generation young adults Identify systemic strengths and weaknesses of work-preparing institutions both within and outside each sector First- and Second- Generation Pathways Project