Presentation on theme: "UIS activities in the collection and analysis of STI indicators and overview of data for South East Asia South East Asian Regional Workshop on Science,"— Presentation transcript:
1UIS activities in the collection and analysis of STI indicators and overview of data for South East AsiaSouth East Asian Regional Workshop on Science, Technology and Innovation StatisticsHanoi, Viet Nam 5-8 December 2011Martin Schaaper
2Objectives of this presentation Present the work that UIS does to support the collection and analysis of STI indicators in developing countriesProvide an overview of the availability of STI indicators worldwide and in the region
3UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) Formerly UNESCO Division of StatisticsEstablished in 1999September the UIS moved from Paris to the University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada30 November 2001 – UNESCO Director-General inaugurates the UNESCO Institute for Statistics in MontrealDirector: Mr. Hendrik van der Pol
4UIS presence around the world MontrealNairobiLuandaBangkokSantiagoApia ●ParisDohaDelhiDakar●BamakoYaoundeWindhoek
5UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) United Nations data repository for:EducationScience, Technology and InnovationCultureCommunication
6UIS is the UN lead agency for S&T statistics Official S&T data source for:UN Statistical Division: UN Statistical Year BookUNDP: Human Development ReportWorld Bank: World Development IndicatorsData publicly available at:UIS Publications (can be downloaded from the UIS website): S&T Bulletins; Fact sheet on R&D statisticsUNESCO Reports:UNESCO Science ReportUNESCO World Report - Towards Knowledge SocietiesInternational Report on S&T and GenderHistory of Science Statistics at UNESCO
7Areas of work R&D personnel & expenditure Human resources devoted to S&TInternational mobilityGenderInnovation dataSince 2010Longer term: Output & Impact
8Lines of action S&T survey operation and data guardianship Training in S&T statistics: workshops & other training activitiesStandard setting and methodological developmentsAnalysis and publications
91. S&T Survey operation and data guardianship Global survey on statistics of science & technologyGlobal database on S&T StatisticsData dissemination: on the UIS website and through contributions to other agencies2011: pilot survey of innovation data
10Survey on Statistics of Science & Technology: R&D Survey Biennially.2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010 R&D surveys completed.Results released on UIS website (http://stats.uis.unesco.org).OECD and Eurostat provide data for their Member States.RICYT provides data for Latin America and for a few Caribbean countries.UIS keeps direct contact with national S&T statisticians.
11Data collection: R&D Survey R&D PersonnelBy sector of employment, occupation, qualification, and field of scienceIn headcount and FTEBy genderR&D ExpenditureBy sector of performance and source of fundsBy type of activity and field of science
12Respondents to the UIS 2008 and 2010 questionnaires: South East Asia Country2008Q2010Q1Brunei DarussalamData not provided2Cambodia3Hong Kong SAR, ChinaData provided4Laos PDR5Indonesia6Macao SAR, China7Malaysia8Myanmar9Philippines10Thailand11Timor-Leste12Viet Nam
13UIS 2008 and 2010 Surveys on R&D: response rates & published data Regions(Countries and Territories covered)Effective responsesQ 2008Q 2010Published data(by June 2011)Sub-Saharan Africa (45)1022%26%1227%30%3169%70%Arab States-Africa (8)450%675%Asia (31, excl. Arab States & OECD)1548%42%1652%51%2477%67%Arab States - Asia (12)325%5Americas (14, excl. RICYT & OECD)17%0%29%Europe (16, excl. OECD & Eurostat)8744%11Oceania (17, excl. OECD)24%18%Sub-total (143)4531%8459%Data from other sources: OECD + Eurostat (45)100%RICYT (25, incl. 10 Caribbean)1872%Total (213)108147Note: Effective responses: number of returned questionnaires with data.
14Researchers per million inhabitants (FTE) Researchers, South East Asia, 2009 or last available yearCountryYearResearchers (FTE)Researchers per million inhabitants (FTE)Brunei Darussalam*2004101.9286Cambodia*2002222.917Hong Kong SAR, China200919,2832759Laos PDR*8716Indonesia*21,27590Macao SAR, China*389.9734Malaysia20069,694.5364Myanmar*83718Philippines20076,95778Thailand21,392315Timor-Leste…Viet Nam9,328116Source: UIS S&T Database, July 2011FTE: Full-time equivalent; * Based on partial data
15How many researchers are there? Number of researchers worldwide Source: UIS, August 2010
16How many researchers are there? Number of researchers worldwide Source: UIS, August 2010Note: Data for the USA are for 2006 instead of 2007
17Where are researchers located Where are researchers located? Shares of world researchers by principal regions, 2002 and 2007 (%)Source: UIS, August 2010
18Which countries host the greatest number of researchers Which countries host the greatest number of researchers? Number of researchers, 2009 or latest available yearSource: UIS, July 2011Note: -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007, -4 = Data in this graph are based on FTE data.
19A breakdown of researchers in the Americas A breakdown of researchers in the Americas. Researchers by sector of employment, 2009 or latest available yearNote: -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007, -5 = 2004, -6 = 2003, -7 = Data in this graph are based on FTE data (* based on HC data).Source: UIS, July 2011
20A breakdown of researchers in Europe A breakdown of researchers in Europe. Researchers by sector of employment, 2009 or latest available yearNote: +1 = 2010, -1 = 2008, -2= Data in this graph are based on FTE data (* based on HC data).Source: UIS, July 2011
21A breakdown of researchers in Africa, Asia and the Pacific A breakdown of researchers in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Researchers by sector of employment, 2009 or latest available yearNote: -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007, -3 = 2006, -4 = 2005, -6 = 2002, -7 = 2001, -9 = 2000, -12 = Data in this graph are based on FTE data (* based on HC data).Source: UIS, July 2011
22What are the national research densities What are the national research densities? Researchers per million inhabitants, 2009 or latest available year0–100 per million101–300 per million301–1000 per million1001–2000 per millionData not available2001 per million and aboveNote: Data in this map are based on FTE. However, figures in headcounts (HC) were considered for the following countries since the FTE figures were not available: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belarus; Benin; Botswana; Cameroon; Central African Rep.; Cuba; Dem. Rep. of the Congo; El Salvador; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Guinea; Honduras; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Libya; Mauritius; Mongolia; Montenegro; Nauru; Nicaragua; Peru; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Saudi Arabia; Sudan; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Trinidad and Tobago; Uganda and U.S. Virgin Islands. This has to be taken into account when interpreting the data.Source: UIS, July 2011
23What are the national research densities What are the national research densities? Researchers per million inhabitants, 2009 or latest available year: Asia0–100 per million0–100 per million101–300 per million101–300 per million301–1000 per million301–1000 per million1001–2000 per million1001–2000 per million2001 per million and above2001 per million and aboveData not availableData not availableSource: UIS, July 2011Note: Data in this map are based on FTE. However, figures in headcounts (HC) were considered for the following countries since the FTE figures were not available: Benin; Botswana; Cameroon; Central African Rep; Dem. Rep. of the Congo; Gabon; Gambia; Guinea; Libya; Mauritius; Sudan; Tanzania and Uganda. This has to be taken into account when interpreting the data.
24The gender gap in science The gender gap in science. Women as a share of total researchers, 2009 or latest available year0%–30%30.1%–45%45.1%–55%55.1%–70%Data not available70.1%–100%Source: UIS, July 2011Note: Data in this map are based on HC, except for Congo and India (based on FTE).
25The gender gap in science The gender gap in science. Women as a share of total researchers, 2009 or latest available year: Asia0%–30%30.1%–45%45.1%–55%55.1%–70%Data not available70.1%–100%0%–30%30.1%–45%45.1%–55%55.1%–70%Data not available70.1%–100%Source: UIS, July 2011Note: Data in this map are based on HC, except for Congo (based on FTE).
26Gender gap in research career Gender gap in research career? Proportion of women and men graduates in tertiary education and those employed as researchers, 2008Source: UIS, October 2010
27GERD ('000) – Local currency Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D (GERD), South East Asia, 2009 or last available yearCountryYearGERD ('000) – Local currencyGERD - PPP$ ('000)GERD – as % of GDPBrunei Darussalam*20044,9256,2680.04Cambodia*20028,357,0106,8160.05Hong Kong SAR, China200912,833,0002,389,6570.79Laos PDR*6,560,0002,652Indonesia*4,671,354,585801,3980.08Macao SAR, China*132,76624,640Malaysia20063,646,7002,090,5120.63Myanmar*9,122,008…0.16Philippines20077,556,360341,2310.11Thailand18,225,2531,116,7470.21Timor-LesteViet Nam1,032,560,900252,0190.19Source: UIS S&T Database, July 2011* Based on partial data
28Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) worldwide Source: UIS, August 2010Figures are in Purchasing Power Parity Dollars (PPP$)
29Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) worldwide Source: UIS, August 2010Figures are in Purchasing Power Parity Dollars (PPP$)
30Where are R&D investments made Where are R&D investments made? Shares of world R&D expenditure (GERD) by principal regions, 2002 and 2007 (%)Source: UIS, August 2010
31World’s top 10 leaders in R&D investment GERD (‘000 PPP$), 2009 or latest available year Source: UIS, July 2011Note: -1 = 2008.
32A snap-shot of R&D intensity A snap-shot of R&D intensity. Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP, 2009 or latest available year0.00%–0.25%0.26%–0.50%0.51%–1.00%1.01%–2.00%Data not available2.01% and aboveSource: UIS, July 2011
33A snap-shot of R&D intensity A snap-shot of R&D intensity. Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP, 2009 or latest available year: Asia0.00%–0.25%0.00%–0.25%0.26%–0.50%0.26%–0.50%0.51%–1.00%0.51%–1.00%1.01%–2.00%1.01%–2.00%2.01% and above2.01% and aboveData not availableData not availableSource: UIS, July 2011
34R&D intensity (GERD as a % of GDP) by principal regions, 1990 – 2007 Sources: For 1990 – 2000, UIS estimates, For , UIS estimates, September 2009.
35A breakdown of R&D investment in the Americas A breakdown of R&D investment in the Americas. GERD by sector of performance, 2009 or latest available yearSource: UIS, July 2011Note: -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007, -5 = 2004, -7 = 2002.
36A breakdown of R&D investment in Europe A breakdown of R&D investment in Europe. GERD by sector of performance, 2009 or latest available yearSource: UIS, July 2011Note: +1 = 2010, -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007.
37A breakdown of R&D investment in Africa, Asia and the Pacific A breakdown of R&D investment in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. GERD by sector of performance, 2009 or latest available yearSource: UIS, July 2011Note: -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007, -3 = 2006, -4 = 2005, -5 = 2004, -7 = 2002, -8 = 2001.
381.2 Innovation Statistics: Why? Medium-term objective of the International Review of S&T Statistics & Indicators ;May provide information on the business sector in developing countries that R&D statistics won’t supply;Many developing countries recently starting to carry out innovation surveys;UIS has a natural coordinating role as UN lead agency on S&T statistics.
39The UIS strategy on Innovation Statistics Inventory of innovation surveys in developing countries;Pilot data collection (in 15 countries in June 2011);2013: Regular data collection every two years;Online worldwide database;Analysis and publications;Capacity building and training activities;Methodological developments and survey help;In partnership with international and regional organisations (ASEAN, AU/NEPAD, Eurostat, OECD, RICYT, …).Will be presented separately
402. Capacity building There are many problems: Lack of understanding of importance of S&T (indicators)Lack of political will and actionLack of coordinationLack of trained personnelHigh staff turnover
41Capacity building (2) Measurement problems: Measuring “real effort” (full-time equivalents)Private sector R&DBudget data vs. surveysRole of foreign entities
42S&T statistics workshops Increase the number of countries regularly producing quality S&T indicators.Create local capacities and establish sustainable local S&T statistics systems.Promote the use of S&T indicators for evidence-based S&T policy making.Share experiences with other developing countries and address problems.Gain knowledge about the particular characteristics of S&T statistics data.Demonstrate good practices in other countries of the region.
43UIS S&T Statistics workshops 2005: Uganda, India2006: Indonesia, Senegal, Kazakhstan2007: Tunisia, FYR of Macedonia, Jordan, Russia, Cameroon2008: Oman, Cambodia, Botswana2009: Kenya, Egypt2010: Mali, Syria, Jordan*, Uzbekistan, Ethiopia*, Nepal2011: Grenada, Gabon, Azerbaijan*, VietnamBut also contributing to similar workshops of partner organisations (e.g. RICYT, NEPAD, other partner orgs)
44Countries that have participated in UNESCO S&T statistics workshops 2005-2011 Countries and territories coveredCountries and territories not yet coveredCountries and territories not targeted
45Results of workshopsIncreased response rate – non-responding countries learn how to do it from UIS and neighbours.Immediate problems solved.Increased data quality – improved understanding of application of international standards.Face to face contacts = more effective networking.Inputs to UIS programme development.
463. Standard setting/methodological developments Measuring R&D in Developing Countries: Technical Guide and Annex to the Frascati Manual (2010)Will be presented separatelyMeasuring Innovation in Developing countries: Annex to the Oslo Manual (2005)Careers of Doctoral Holders – CDH (since 2004)
47The careers of doctorate holders survey (CDH) A joint project with the OECD and Eurostat.Methodology developed “from scratch”.Aimed both at developed and developing countries.With participation from experts from both developed and developing countries.Promoting the methodology by encouraging developing countries to conduct such surveys and produce cross-nationally comparable statistics on careers of doctorate holders.
48Relevance of the CDH project Focus on the crucial role of highly qualified individuals who represent a key to the production, application and transmission of knowledge.Statistics on the global trends in human resources for Science and Technology (HRST) very weak.Quality and comparability of international data on migration is particularly weak.Diversity of data collection methods hinders international comparability, and does not provide information on career paths and mobility patterns.
49Objectives of CDH Objectives: To design an internationally comparable tool for tracking the careers of doctorates holders and highly qualified people in different countries.To collect and exchange information on the career paths of holders of doctorates from existing data sources and the new survey tool.
50CDH modules Doctoral Education (EDU) Early Career Research positions (ECR)Employment situation (EMP)International mobility (MOB)Career-related experience (CAR)Personal characteristics (PER)
51CDH toolkit Components: Model questionnaire and Instruction Manual Output tables and variables definitionsMethodological guidelinesBridge table model questionnaire - output tablesSee:and
524. Some publicationsData publicly available at: (http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/ReportFolders/ReportFolders.aspx?IF_ActivePath=P,54&IF_Language=eng)UIS Fact SheetsUNESCO Science Report 2010International Report on Science, Technology and Gender 2007Planned: Global R&D e-publication 2011
53Collaborations / Partnerships UNESCO HQsWorld BankEurostatAU-NEPADADBATPSISDBEU-MedibtikarIDRC (Canada)IRD (France)UNESCO offices worldwideOECDRICYT (Latin America)ALECSOArab Academy of ScienceISESCOInter-Academy CouncilINRS (Quebec, Canada)ASEANCentre for Social Innovation (ZSI), AustriaECO
54Quality of data Efficient use of resources Validity and reliability Consistency over time and spaceRelevance to policyAccessibility and affordabilityPotential for disaggregationComparability through standardsCurrency and punctualityCoherence across sourcesClarity and transparency
55Way forward There is still a lot to do! UIS needs to keep direct contact with statisticians: Quality and relevance.Countries to establish sustainable S&T statistics systems, involving line ministries (S&T Ministries or Research Councils) and National Statistical Offices.Looking forward to further cooperation.