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Www.uis.unesco.org UIS activities in the collection and analysis of STI indicators and Overview of data for South Asia South Asian Regional Workshop on.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.uis.unesco.org UIS activities in the collection and analysis of STI indicators and Overview of data for South Asia South Asian Regional Workshop on."— Presentation transcript:

1 UIS activities in the collection and analysis of STI indicators and Overview of data for South Asia South Asian Regional Workshop on Science, Technology and Innovation Statistics Kathmandu, Nepal 6-9 December 2010

2 Objectives of this presentation Present the work that UIS does to support the collection and analysis of STI indicators in developing countries Provide an overview of the availability of STI indicators worldwide and in the region

3 UIS is the UN lead agency for S&T statistics Official S&T data source for: UN Statistical Division: UN Statistical Year Book UNDP: Human Development Report World Bank: World Development Indicators UNESCO Reports: UNESCO Science Report UNESCO World Report - Towards Knowledge Societies International Report on S&T and Gender

4 UIS Strategy on S&T statistics International Review of S&T Statistics & Indicators Resulting priorities: Immediate term: R&D personnel & expenditure Human resources devoted to S&T Science education & Higher education International mobility Gender Medium term: Innovation data Just started! Longer term: Output & Impact

5 Lines of action 1.S&T survey operation and data guardianship 2.Training in S&T statistics: workshops & other training activities 3.Standard setting and methodological developments 4.Analysis and publications

6 1. S&T Survey operation and data guardianship Global survey on statistics of science & technology Global database on S&T Statistics Data dissemination: on the UIS website and through contributions to other agencies 2011: pilot data collection of innovation data

7 Survey on Statistics of Science & Technology Biennially. 2004, 2006 and 2008 S&T surveys completed. 4 th round launched in June Results released on UIS website (http://stats.uis.unesco.org). OECD and Eurostat provide data for their Member States, RICYT provides data for Latin America. UIS keeps direct contact with national S&T statisticians.

8 Data collection R&D Personnel By sector of employment, occupation, qualification, and field of science In headcount and FTE By gender R&D Expenditure By sector of performance and source of funds New: by type of activity and field of science

9 UIS 2008 and 2010 Surveys on R&D: response rates & published data Regions (Countries and Territories covered) Responses Q 2008 Responses Q 2010 Published data Q2008 Sub-Saharan Africa (46) 2146% 1636% 38% 2759% 61% Arab States-Africa (8) 450%4 675% Asia (31, excl. Arab States & OECD ) 2168% 63% 2065% 63% 2477% 65% Arab States - Asia (12) 650%758%433% Americas (19, excl. RICYT & OECD ) 421%00%421% Europe (16, excl. OECD & Eurostat ) 1169%638%1063% Oceania (17, excl. OECD ) 424%16%318% Sub-total (149) 7148%5438%7852% Data from other sources: OECD + Eurostat (43) Total coverage 43100% RICYT (23) 1983% Total (215) 13764%12458%14065%

10 Respondents to the UIS 2008 and 2010 questionnaires from South Asian countries Country2008Q2010Q AfghanistanData not provided BangladeshData not provided BhutanData not provided IndiaData not providedData provided IranData provided MaldivesData not provided MongoliaData provided NepalData not provided PakistanData provided Sri LankaData provided Note: China provides data to the OECD

11 How many researchers are there? Number of researchers worldwide Source: UIS, June 2010

12 How many researchers are there? Number of researchers worldwide Source: UIS, June 2010 Note: Data for the USA are for 2006 instead of 2007

13 Where are researchers located? Shares of world researchers by principal regions, 2002 and 2007 (%) Source: UIS, September 2009

14 Shares of world researchers by principal regions/countries, 2002 and 2007 (%) Source: UIS estimates, September 2009

15 Which countries host the greatest number of researchers? Number of researchers, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010

16 What are the national research densities? Researchers per million inhabitants, 2007 or latest available year 0 – 100 per million 101 – 300 per million 301 – 1000 per million 1001 – 2000 per million Data not available 2001 per million and above Source: UIS, August 2010

17 What are the national research densities? Researchers per million inhabitants, 2007 or latest available year: South Asia 0 – 100 per million 101 – 300 per million 301 – 1000 per million 1001 – 2000 per million Data not available 2001 per million and above Source: UIS, August 2010

18 How many researchers are there? Researchers per million inhabitants, by principal regions/countries, 2007 or latest year available Notes: -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005 Source: UIS estimates, September 2009

19 The gender gap in science. Women as a share of total researchers, 2007 or latest available year 0% – 30% 30.1% – 45% 45.1% – 55% 55.1% – 70% Data not available 70.1% – 100% Source: UIS, August 2010Note: Data in this map are based on HC, except for Congo (based on FTE).

20 The gender gap in science: South Asia. Women as a share of total researchers, 2007 or latest available year 0% – 30% 30.1% – 45% 45.1% – 55% 55.1% – 70% Data not available 70.1% – 100% Source: UIS, August 2010Note: Data in this map are based on HC.

21 Gender gap in research career? Proportion of women and men graduates in tertiary education and those employed as researchers, 2008 Source: UIS, October 2010

22 Researchers, South Asian countries, 2007 or last available year Source: UIS S&T Database, November FTE: Full-time equivalence - HC: Headcount - n: National publication - *Partial data - e National estimation CountryYearResearchers (FTE) Researchers per million inhabitants (FTE) Afghanistan--- Bangladesh1997 HC 6, Bhutan--- China2007 1,423, India2005 n 154, Iran , Maldives--- Mongolia2007* HC 1, Nepal2002 e 1,500 m Pakistan , Sri Lanka2006 1,833 93

23 Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) worldwide (in Purchasing Power Parity Dollars) Source: UIS, June 2010

24 Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) worldwide (in Purchasing Power Parity Dollars) Source: UIS, June 2010

25 Where are R&D investments made? Shares of world R&D expenditure (GERD) by principal regions, 2002 and 2007 (%) Source: UIS, September 2009

26 Shares of world R&D expenditure (GERD) by principal regions/countries, 2002 and 2007 (%) Source: UIS estimates, September 2009

27 Worlds top 10 leaders in R&D investment GERD ( billions PPP$), 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010

28 A snap-shot of R&D intensity. Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP, 2007 or latest available year 0.00% – 0.25% 0.26% – 0.50% 0.51% – 1.00% 1.01% – 2.00% Data not available 2.01% and above Source: UIS, August 2010

29 A snap-shot of R&D intensity: South Asia Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP, 2007 or latest available year 0.00% – 0.25% 0.26% – 0.50% 0.51% – 1.00% 1.01% – 2.00% Data not available 2.01% and above Source: UIS, August 2010

30 Which regions are most R&D intensive? Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a % of GDP by principal regions/countries, 2007 or latest year available Notes: -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005Source: UIS estimates, September 2009

31 R&D intensity (GERD as a % of GDP) by principal regions, 1990 – 2007 Sources: For 1990 – 2000, UIS estimates, For , UIS estimates, September 2009.

32 Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D (GERD) indicators in South Asian countries, 2007 or latest available year n National publication - * Partial dataSource: UIS S&T Database, November 2010 CountryYear GERD ('000) – Local currency GERD - PPP$ ('000) GERD – as % of GDP GERD per capita (PPP$) Afghanistan----- Bangladesh Bhutan----- China ,024,000102,428, India2007 n 377,779,00024,792, Iran ,657,000,0004,699, Maldives----- Mongolia2007* 10,410,00019, Nepal----- Pakistan ,441,7462,726, Sri Lanka2006 5,119,200135,

33 Which sectors perform the most R&D? A breakdown of R&D investment in Europe. GERD by sector of performance, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -3 = 2004.

34 A breakdown of R&D investment in the Americas. GERD by sector of performance, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -5 = 2002.

35 A breakdown of R&D investment in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. GERD by sector of performance, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -5 = 2002.

36 Which sectors finance the most in R&D? Funding in Europe. GERD by source of funds, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -4 = 2003, -5 = 2002

37 Funding in the Americas. GERD by source of funds, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Notes: +1 = 2008, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -5 = 2002.

38 Funding in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. GERD by source of funds, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -5 = 2002, -6 = 2001.

39 Quality of data Efficient use of resources Consistency over time and space Accessibility and affordability Validity and reliability Comparability through standards Relevance to policy Potential for disaggregation Currency and punctuality Coherence across sources Clarity and transparency

40 2. Capacity building There are many problems: Lack of understanding of importance of S&T (indicators) Lack of political will and action Lack of coordination Lack of trained personnel High staff turnover

41 Capacity building (2) Measurement problems: Measuring real effort (full-time equivalents) Private sector R&D Budget data vs. surveys Role of foreign entities

42 S&T statistics workshops Increase the number of countries regularly producing quality S&T indicators. Create local capacities and establish sustainable local S&T statistics systems. Promote the use of S&T indicators for evidence-based S&T policy making. Share experiences with other developing countries and address problems. Gain knowledge about the particular characteristics of S&T statistics data. Demonstrate good practices in other countries of the region.

43 UIS S&T Statistics workshops 2005:Uganda, India 2006:Indonesia, Senegal, Kazakhstan 2007:Tunisia, FYR of Macedonia, Jordan, Brazil, Russia, Cameroon 2008:Oman, Cambodia, Botswana 2009:Kenya, Egypt 2010:Mali, Syria, Uzbekistan, Nepal But also contributing to similar workshops of partner organisations (e.g. RICYT, NEPAD, ASEAN)

44 Countries that have participated in UNESCO S&T statistics workshops Countries and territories not yet covered Countries and territories not targeted Countries and territories covered

45 Results of workshops Increased response rate – non-responding countries learn how to do it from UIS and neighbours. Immediate problems solved. Increased data quality – improved understanding of application of international standards. Face to face contacts = more effective networking. Inputs to UIS programme development.

46 3. Standard setting/methodological developments Careers of Doctoral Holders – CDH (since 2004) Measuring Innovation in Developing countries: Annex to the Oslo Manual (2005) Will be discussed later Measuring R&D in Developing Countries: Technical Guide and Annex to the Frascati Manual (2010) Will be discussed later

47 The careers of doctorate holders survey (CDH) A joint project with the OECD and Eurostat. Methodology developed from scratch. Aimed both at developed and developing countries. With participation from experts from both developed and developing countries. Promoting the methodology by encouraging developing countries to conduct such surveys and produce cross-nationally comparable statistics on careers of doctorate holders.

48 Relevance of the CDH project Focus on the crucial role of highly qualified individuals who represent a key to the production, application and transmission of knowledge. Statistics on the global trends in human resources for Science and Technology (HRST) very weak. Quality and comparability of international data on migration is particularly weak. Diversity of data collection methods hinders international comparability, and does not provide information on career paths and mobility patterns.

49 Objectives of CDH Objectives: To design an internationally comparable tool for tracking the careers of doctorates holders and highly qualified people in different countries. To collect and exchange information on the career paths of holders of doctorates from existing data sources and the new survey tool.

50 CDH toolkit Components: Model questionnaire and Instruction Manual Output tables and variables definitions Methodological guidelines Bridge table model questionnaire - output tables See: URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201 and

51 CDH modules Doctoral Education (EDU) Early Career Research positions (ECR) Employment situation (EMP) International mobility (MOB) Career-related experience (CAR) Personal characteristics (PER)

52 4. Some publications Data publicly available at: UIS Publications (can be downloaded from the UIS website): S&T Bulletin 1 – Investment in R&D; S&T Bulletin 2 – Bibliometric Indicators; S&T Bulletin 3 – Women in Science Fact sheet: R&D statistics (recently updated) UNESCO Science Report 2010 (out in November) International Report on Science, Technology and Gender 2007 UNESCO World Report History of Science Statistics at UNESCO Paper on current status of International Science statistics for Africa in African Statistical Journal

53 Collaborations / Partnerships UNESCO HQs World Bank Eurostat AU-NEPAD ADB ATPS ISDB EU-Medibtikar IDRC (Canada) IRD (France) UNESCO offices worldwide OECD RICYT (Latin America) ALECSO Arab Academy of Science ISESCO Inter-Academy Council INRS (Quebec, Canada) ASEAN

54 Way forward There is still a lot to do! UIS needs to keep direct contact with statisticians: Quality and relevance. Countries to establish sustainable S&T statistics systems, involving line ministries (S&T Ministries or Research Councils) and National Statistical Offices. Looking forward to further cooperation.

55 Thank you!


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