Presentation on theme: "Www.uis.unesco.org UIS activities in the collection and analysis of STI indicators and overview of data for Arab States Regional Workshop on Science, Technology."— Presentation transcript:
UIS activities in the collection and analysis of STI indicators and overview of data for Arab States Regional Workshop on Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Indicators for Gulf countries Doha, Qatar 15 to 17 October 2012
Objectives of this presentation Present the work that UIS does to support the collection and analysis of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) indicators in developing countries Provide an overview of the availability of STI indicators worldwide and in the region
UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) Formerly UNESCO Office of Statistics; Division of Statistics on S&T Established in 1999 September the UIS moved from Paris to the University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada 30 November 2001 – UNESCO Director-General inaugurates the UNESCO Institute for Statistics in Montreal Director: Mr. Hendrik van der Pol
UIS presence around the world Montreal Nairobi Luanda Bangkok Santiago Apia Paris Dakar Windhoek Bamako Yaounde Doha Delhi
UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) United Nations data repository for: Education Science, Technology and Innovation Culture Communication
UIS is the UN lead agency for S&T statistics Official S&T data source for: UN Statistical Division: UN Statistical Year Book UNDP: Human Development Report World Bank: World Development Indicators Data publicly available at: UIS Publications (can be downloaded from the UIS website): S&T Bulletins; Fact sheet, eAtlas on R&D statistics UNESCO Reports: UNESCO Science Report UNESCO World Report - Towards Knowledge Societies International Report on S&T and Gender History of Science Statistics at UNESCO
Areas of work R&D personnel & expenditure Human resources devoted to S&T International mobility Gender Innovation data Since 2010 Longer term: Output & Impact
Lines of action 1.STI survey operation and data guardianship 1.1 R&D Survey 1.2 Innovation Survey 2.Training in STI statistics: workshops & other training activities 3.Standard setting and methodological developments 4.Analysis and publications
1. STI Survey operation and data guardianship Global survey on statistics of Research and Development (R&D) Global database on R&D Statistics Data dissemination: on the UIS website and through contributions to other agencies 2011: Pilot survey of Innovation Statistics
1.1 Survey on Statistics of Research and Development (R&D) Biennially. 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010 R&D surveys completed. 5 th round was launched in June Data and metadata released on UIS website (http://stats.uis.unesco.org). OECD and Eurostat provide data for their Member States. RICYT provides data for Latin America and for a few Caribbean countries.
Data collection: R&D Survey R&D Personnel By sector of employment, occupation, qualification, and field of science In headcount and FTE By gender R&D Expenditure By sector of performance and source of funds By type of activity and field of science
Respondents to the UIS 2010 and 2012 questionnaires: Arab States Country2010Q2012Q 1BahrainData not provided 2KuwaitData provided 3OmanData not provided 4QatarData not provided 5Saudi ArabiaData providedData not provided 6United Arab EmiratesData not provided 7AlgeriaData not provided 8DjiboutiData not provided 9EgyptData providedData not provided 10IraqData provided 11JordanData providedData not provided
Respondents to the UIS 2010 and 2012 questionnaires: Arab States conti.. Country2010Q2012Q 12LebanonData not provided 13LibyaData providedData not provided 14MauritaniaData not provided 15MoroccoData providedData not provided 16PalestineData provided 17South SudanData not provided 18SudanData not provided 19Syrian Arab RepublicData not provided 20TunisiaData providedData not provided 21YemenData not provided
UIS 2010 and 2012 Surveys on R&D: response rates & published data Regions (Countries and Territories covered) Effective responses Q 2010 Effective responses Q 2012 Published data (by June 2012) Sub-Saharan Africa (45) 1227% 30% 37% 6% 3169% 70% Arab States-Africa (9) 444%00%667% Asia (31, excl. Arab States & OECD ) 1652% 51% 723% 2477% 67% Arab States - Asia (12) 650%325%542% Americas (14, excl. RICYT & OECD ) 00%17%429% Europe (16, excl. OECD & Eurostat ) 744%319%1169% Oceania (17, excl. OECD ) 00%0 318% Sub-total (144) 4531%1712%8459% Data from other sources: OECD + Eurostat (44) 45100%44100%44100% RICYT (26, incl. 10 Caribbean ) 1872%1973%1973% Total (214) 10851%8037%14769% Note: Effective responses: number of returned questionnaires with data.
Researchers, Arab States, 2009 or last available year CountryYearResearchers (FTE) Researchers per million inhabitants (FTE) Bahrain* ……… Kuwait Oman ……… Qatar ……… Saudi Arabia* (HC) 47 (HC) United Arab Emirates ……… Algeria* Djibouti ……… Egypt* Iraq* Jordan* (HC) (HC) Source: UIS S&T Database, Aug 2012 FTE: Full-time equivalent; * Based on partial data
Researchers, Arab States, 2009 or last available year conti.. CountryYearResearchers (FTE) Researchers per million inhabitants (FTE) Lebanon ……… Libya* (HC) 73 (HC) Mauritania ……… Morocco* Palestine* South Sudan ……… Sudan* (HC) … Syrian Arab Republic ……… Tunisia* Yemen ……… Source: UIS S&T Database, Aug 2012 FTE: Full-time equivalent; * Based on partial data
How many researchers are there? Number of researchers worldwide Source: UIS, August 2010
How many researchers are there? Number of researchers worldwide Source: UIS, August 2010 Note: Data for the USA are for 2006 instead of 2007
Where are researchers located? Shares of world researchers by principal regions, 2002 and 2007 (%) Source: UIS, August 2010
Which countries host the greatest number of researchers? Number of researchers, 2009 or latest available year Source: UIS, July 2011Note: -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007, -4 = Data in this graph are based on FTE data.
A breakdown of researchers in the Americas. Researchers by sector of employment, 2009 or latest available year Source: UIS, July 2011 Note: -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007, -5 = 2004, -6 = 2003, -7 = Data in this graph are based on FTE data (* based on HC data).
A breakdown of researchers in Europe. Researchers by sector of employment, 2009 or latest available year Source: UIS, July 2011 Note: +1 = 2010, -1 = 2008, -2= Data in this graph are based on FTE data (* based on HC data).
A breakdown of researchers in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Researchers by sector of employment, 2009 or latest available year Source: UIS, July 2011 Note: -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007, -3 = 2006, -4 = 2005, -6 = 2002, -7 = 2001, -9 = 2000, -12 = Data in this graph are based on FTE data (* based on HC data).
What are the national research densities? Researchers per million inhabitants, 2009 or latest available year 0–100 per million 101–300 per million 301–1000 per million 1001–2000 per million Data not available 2001 per million and above Note: Data in this map are based on FTE. However, figures in headcounts (HC) were considered for the following countries since the FTE figures were not available: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belarus; Benin; Botswana; Cameroon; Central African Rep.; Cuba; Dem. Rep. of the Congo; El Salvador; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Guinea; Honduras; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Libya; Mauritius; Mongolia; Montenegro; Nauru; Nicaragua; Peru; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Saudi Arabia; Sudan; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Trinidad and Tobago; Uganda and U.S. Virgin Islands. This has to be taken into account when interpreting the data. Source: UIS, July 2011
The gender gap in science. Women as a share of total researchers, 2009 or latest available year 0%–30% 30.1%–45% 45.1%–55% 55.1%–70% Data not available 70.1%–100% Source: UIS, July 2011Note: Data in this map are based on HC, except for Congo and India (based on FTE).
Gender gap in research career? Proportion of women and men graduates in tertiary education and those employed as researchers, 2008 Source: UIS, October 2010
Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D (GERD), Arab States, 2009 or last available year CountryYear GERD ('000) – Local currencyGERD - PPP$ ('000) GERD – as % of GDP Bahrain ………… Kuwait* …0.11 Oman ………… Qatar ………… Saudi Arabia* United Arab Emirates ………… Algeria* Djibouti ………… Egypt* Iraq ………… Jordan* * Based on partial dataSource: UIS S&T Database, Aug 2012
Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D (GERD), Arab States, 2009 or last available year conti.. CountryYear GERD ('000) – Local currencyGERD - PPP$ ('000) GERD – as % of GDP Lebanon ………… Libya ………… Mauritania ………… Morocco* Palestine ………… South Sudan ………… Sudan* Syrian Arab Republic ………… Tunisia* Yemen ………… * Based on partial dataSource: UIS S&T Database, Aug 2012
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) worldwide Source: UIS, August 2010 Figures are in Purchasing Power Parity Dollars (PPP$)
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) worldwide Source: UIS, August 2010 Figures are in Purchasing Power Parity Dollars (PPP$)
Where are R&D investments made? Shares of world R&D expenditure (GERD) by principal regions, 2002 and 2007 (%) Source: UIS, August 2010
Worlds top 10 leaders in R&D investment GERD (000 PPP$), 2009 or latest available year Source: UIS, July 2011 Note: -1 = 2008.
A snap-shot of R&D intensity. Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP, 2009 or latest available year 0.00%–0.25% 0.26%–0.50% 0.51%–1.00% 1.01%–2.00% Data not available 2.01% and above Source: UIS, July 2011
R&D intensity (GERD as a % of GDP) by principal regions, 1990 – 2007 Sources: For 1990 – 2000, UIS estimates, For , UIS estimates, September 2009.
A breakdown of R&D investment in the Americas. GERD by sector of performance, 2009 or latest available year Source: UIS, July 2011Note: -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007, -5 = 2004, -7 = 2002.
A breakdown of R&D investment in Europe. GERD by sector of performance, 2009 or latest available year Source: UIS, July 2011Note: +1 = 2010, -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007.
A breakdown of R&D investment in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. GERD by sector of performance, 2009 or latest available year Source: UIS, July 2011Note: -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007, -3 = 2006, -4 = 2005, -5 = 2004, -7 = 2002, -8 = 2001.
1.2 Innovation Statistics: Why? Medium-term objective of the International Review of S&T Statistics & Indicators ; May provide information on the business sector in developing countries that R&D statistics wont supply; Many developing countries recently starting to carry out innovation surveys; UIS has a natural coordinating role as UN lead agency on STI statistics.
The UIS strategy on Innovation Statistics Inventory of innovation surveys in developing countries; Pilot data collection (around 20 countries in June 2011); 2013: Regular data collection every two years; Online worldwide database; Analysis and publications; Capacity building and training activities; Methodological developments and survey help; In partnership with international and regional organisations (ASEAN, AU/NEPAD, Eurostat, OECD, RICYT, …).
2. Capacity building: STI statistics workshops Increase the number of countries regularly producing quality S&T indicators. Create local capacities and establish sustainable local S&T statistics systems. Promote the use of S&T indicators for evidence-based S&T policy making. Share experiences with other developing countries and address problems. Gain knowledge about the particular characteristics of S&T statistics data. Demonstrate good practices in other countries of the region.
UIS STI Statistics workshops 2005:Uganda, India 2006:Indonesia, Senegal, Kazakhstan 2007:Tunisia, FYR of Macedonia, Jordan, Russia, Cameroon 2008:Oman, Cambodia, Botswana 2009:Kenya, Egypt 2010:Mali, Syria, Jordan*, Uzbekistan, Ethiopia*, Nepal 2011:Grenada, Gabon, Azerbaijan*, Vietnam But also contributing to similar workshops of partner organisations (e.g. RICYT, NEPAD, other partner orgs)
Countries that have participated in UNESCO S&T statistics workshops Countries and territories not yet covered Countries and territories not targeted Countries and territories covered
Results of workshops Increased response rate – non-responding countries learn how to do it from UIS and neighbours. Immediate problems solved. Increased data quality – improved understanding of application of international standards. Face to face contacts = more effective networking. Inputs to UIS programme development.
3. Standard setting/methodological developments Measuring R&D in Developing Countries: Technical Guide and Annex to the Frascati Manual (2010) Measuring Innovation in Developing countries: Annex to the Oslo Manual (2005) Careers of Doctoral Holders – CDH (since 2004)
Measuring R&D in Developing Countries: Annex to the Frascati Manual (2010 / 2011) NEW Annex UIS TP5: FM Annex:
Measuring R&D in Developing Countries cont. Objectives are to provide: Guidance to developing countries on how to adapt the FM standards Recommendations for specific situations that fall outside FM framework Suggestions on how to strengthen S&T statistical system in developing countries Stay within boundaries of Frascati Manual (FM) Some of the measurement challenges may be considered for a future revision of the FM
Measuring Innovation in Developing Countries: Annex to the Oslo Manual (2005) After the publication of the 2 nd Oslo Manual, also developing countries started conducting innovation surveys. The design of the surveys was intended to comply with Oslo Manual standards, with adaptations for capturing the particular characteristics of innovation processes. Adaptations were prepared by each country separately and with different approaches. Bogotá Manual published by RICYT (Ibero American Network on S&T Indicators) first effort to compile particularities and guide the design of cross-nationally comparable innovation surveys. Oslo Manual 3 rd edition: UIS drafted the annex on Innovation surveys in developing countries. (page 135)
The careers of doctorate holders survey (CDH) A joint project with the OECD and Eurostat. Methodology developed from scratch. Aimed both at developed and developing countries. With participation from experts from both developed and developing countries. Promoting the methodology by encouraging developing countries to conduct such surveys and produce cross-nationally comparable statistics on careers of doctorate holders.
Relevance of the CDH project Focus on the crucial role of highly qualified individuals who represent a key to the production, application and transmission of knowledge. Statistics on the global trends in human resources for Science and Technology (HRST) very weak. Quality and comparability of international data on migration is particularly weak. Diversity of data collection methods hinders international comparability, and does not provide information on career paths and mobility patterns.
Objectives of CDH Objectives: To design an internationally comparable tool for tracking the careers of doctorates holders and highly qualified people in different countries. To collect and exchange information on the career paths of holders of doctorates from existing data sources and the new survey tool.
CDH modules Doctoral Education (EDU) Early Career Research positions (ECR) Employment situation (EMP) International mobility (MOB) Career-related experience (CAR) Personal characteristics (PER)
CDH toolkit Components: Model questionnaire and Instruction Manual Output tables and variables definitions Methodological guidelines Bridge table model questionnaire - output tables See: URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201 and
Current / Future methodological work Reviewing the concepts on Science and Technology Activities (STA): Guide for the conduct of an R&D Surveys in Developing Countries: Guide to Innovation Surveys in Developing Countries: 201?
4. Some publications Data publicly available at: (http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/ReportFolders/R eportFolders.aspx?IF_ActivePath=P,54&IF_Langua ge=eng) UIS Fact Sheets UNESCO Science Report 2010 International Report on Science, Technology and Gender 2007 R&D eAtlas: research-development/en
Collaborations / Partnerships UNESCO HQs World Bank Eurostat AU-NEPAD ADB ATPS ISDB EU-Medibtikar IDRC (Canada) IRD (France) UNESCO offices worldwide OECD RICYT (Latin America) ALECSO Arab Academy of Science ISESCO Inter-Academy Council INRS (Quebec, Canada) ASEAN Centre for Social Innovation (ZSI), Austria ECO
Way forward There is still a lot to do! UIS needs to keep direct contact with statisticians: Quality and relevance. Countries to establish sustainable S&T statistics systems, involving line ministries (S&T Ministries or Research Councils) and National Statistical Offices. Looking forward to further cooperation.