Presentation on theme: "Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Careers of Doctorate Holders (CDH) TRAINING WORKSHOP ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS Cairo, Egypt September 2009
2 UIS approach to Human Resources statistics: CDH project Methodology developed “from the scratch” together with OECD & Eurostat.Aimed both at developed and developing countriesWith participation from experts from both developed and developing countriesPromoting the methodology by encouraging developing countries to conduct such surveys and produce cross-nationally comparable statistics on careers of doctorate holders
3 Relevance of the CDH project World economy is increasingly based on knowledge and information.Knowledge is now recognised as the driver of productivity and economic growth.As a result, there is a new focus on the crucial role of highly qualified individuals who represent a key to the production, application and transmission of knowledge.Statistics on the global trends in human resources for Science and Technology (HRST) are very week.The quality and comparability of international data on migration is particularly weak.Diversity of data collection methods hinders international comparability, and does not provide information on career paths and mobility patterns.
4 Background‘Brain drain’ or loss of skilled personnel identified as priority by UIS and UNESCO ParisOECD and EU are interested inskills loss from developing countriesMoves from university to industryUS NSF also interested in changing US patterns of academic recruitment
5 ProcessTo meet the users demands UIS, OECD & Eurostat launched a project on “Statistics on the Careers of Doctorate Holders”.Each organization took responsibility for issues appropriate to their mandate. Expertise and resources are shared across the three partners.Initial expert group: Argentina, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Portugal, Russian Federation, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine, Uganda, the United States.
6 ObjectivesTo design an internationally comparable tool for tracking the careers of doctorates holders and highly qualified people in different countries.To pilot test this instrument in volunteer countries.To collect and exchange information on the career paths of holders of doctorates from existing data sources and the new survey tool.particular accent on the mobility of doctorate holders across national borders.take account of particular policy needs of developing countries.
7 Task forcesProduction of output tabulations, and development of common definitions (led by OECD)Drafting of methodological guidelines (led by Eurostat).Development of a model survey with a supporting methodology (led by UIS).particular accent on the mobility of doctorate holders across national borders.take account of particular policy needs of developing countries.
8 Output tabulation program Conceived to be used by countries when delivering the requested data to the international organizations;Consists of several tables organized in four broad groups:personal characteristicseducation characteristicsemployment situation and perceptionsinternational mobility: inward and outward
9 Definitions (1) Research qualification Recent doctorate recipient Age Citizenship statusResidential statusCountry of citizenship / birth / residence / doctorate award / prior education / …Time to completion of doctorate
10 Definitions (2)Employed/Unemployed/Inactive/Employee/Self-employed workersTemporary/permanent employmentFull-time/part-time employmentGross annual earningsField of research qualificationSector of employmentOccupationsInternationally mobile research qualification holder
11 Methodological guidelines Define and structure the target populationDescribe the sources for building sampling framesPresent some aspects of data collection, data processing and results estimation.Should be seen as an orientation for countries that plan to launch a CDH survey as well as a tool to improve and align their existing national surveys to an international standard.
12 Consists of individuals fulfilling the following criteria: Target populationConsists of individuals fulfilling the following criteria:having an education at ISCED 6 level (research qualification) obtained anywhere in the world, andbeing resident (permanent or non-permanent) within the national borders of the surveying country.
13 Target population structure (1) Target population, residents in country X (the surveying country) that are:Citizens of country X with doctorate awarded within country XCitizens of foreign countries with doctorate awarded in country XCitizens of country X with doctorate awarded abroadCitizens of foreign countries with doctorate awarded abroadNon-target population, residents outside country X that are:Citizens of country X, with doctorate awarded within country X that have left country XCitizens of foreign countries, with doctorate awarded in country X that have left country X
14 Target population structure (2) What to do with doctorates abroad- Groups E and F are usually taken into consideration in the reporting countries where these doctorate holders are resident.- If countries are able to construct a sample frame, and reach group E, the survey could also be extended to this group, even if countries are not requested to report information to the international organizations on them.
15 Sources for constructing sampling frames National education registersUniversitiesInternational and national foundationsNational librariesPopulation censusesResearch institutesProfessional organizationsCentral registers of foreignersAlumni organizationsPreviously conducted surveys on doctorate holders
16 Survey types Cohorts of recent graduates: administered on graduation and repeated every few yearssimple and straightforward, butlimited coverage of the target populationSnapshot surveys (cross-sectional retrospective sample of all doctorates):one time, administered on an occasional basismore appropriate tool for collection of information related to the entire target populationcovers all cohorts at the same timequickly provides information on the mobility and career development of doctorate holdersShould not be seen as mutually excluding but rather complementary
17 Instruments (developed by UIS) Core model questionnaire containing “core questions” which would provide data to fill in the output tabulations. The questionnaire will be accompanied with a manual comprising the definitions and other guidelines.CDH questions data base comprises the set of questions among which the suitable questions can be chosen and applied by countries when designing CDH surveys. CDH data base will be web-based and openly accessible.The core model questionnaire is mainly foreseen for countries which do not have CDH type surveys yet.
18 Construction of Core model Questionnaire The following existing CDH questionnaires were used:USA (SED and SDR),Canada (SED),Switzerland (Survey of Tertiary Graduates plus Doctorates surveyed the year after they received their degree),Portugal (Survey of former PhD Scholarships receivers concerning their professional situation),India (Pilot study on the Career Profile and Professional Achievements of Doctorates in science from the Selected Central Universities/Institutions),Ukraine (Structure of database of Doctorate Holders in Ukraine)
19 Modules Education of those with research qualifications (module EDU) Early career research positions (module ECR)Employment history (module EMP)International mobility (module MOB)Career related experience (module CAR)Personal characteristics (module PER)
20 Information on educational history of doctorates holders, such as: Doctoral EducationInformation on educational history of doctorates holders, such as:institutionfield of sciencedurationsources of financial supportcountry of previous degrees
21 Early career positions Often referred to as postdocs (definitional problems)Title, Field of S&T, total lengthReasons for taking this positionActivities involved (Research, teaching, other)Main source of financial support
22 Employment situationDetailed information on employment status, working hours, principal employer, sector and type of employment (postdoc, temporary or permanent employment, part-time or full-time job ), annual earnings, job-satisfaction.Relationship of job & doctorate degree.Retrospective career history within ten past years (including occupation, dates, years of experience, and reasons for leaving position).“multi-job” pattern is foreseen.
23 International mobility Information on mobility patterns, including inflows (group D) and outflows (group C).Enables to distinguish temporary mobility from permanent mobility as well as to identify the reasons for departure and return.Provides data on intentions to move out of the country within the next year including the destination planned.Enquires about linkages with country of origin.
24 Personal characteristics Marital statusNumber of dependentsPlace of birth, date of birth, citizenship status (in order to better deal with dual nationality as well) and residential status.Contact information
25 Way forward CDH surveys are being carried out in the EU, AU, US. The CDH kit has been published as a joint publication with OECD & Eurostat.An international database is being constructed.Involve more developing countries!