UIS activities in the collection and analysis of STI indicators and overview of data for Central Asia CENTRAL ASIAN SUB-REGIONAL CONSULTATION.
Presentation on theme: "Www.uis.unesco.org UIS activities in the collection and analysis of STI indicators and overview of data for Arab States SUB-REGIONAL HANDS-ON TRAINING."— Presentation transcript:
www.uis.unesco.org UIS activities in the collection and analysis of STI indicators and overview of data for Arab States SUB-REGIONAL HANDS-ON TRAINING ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS Damascus, Syria 18-20 September 2010
www.uis.unesco.org Objectives of this presentation Present the work that UIS does to support the collection and analysis of STI indicators in developing countries Provide an overview of the availability of STI indicators worldwide and in the region
www.uis.unesco.org UIS is the UN lead agency for S&T statistics Official S&T data source for: UN Statistical Division: UN Statistical Year Book UNDP: Human Development Report World Bank: World Development Indicators UNESCO Reports: UNESCO Science Report UNESCO World Report - Towards Knowledge Societies International Report on S&T and Gender
www.uis.unesco.org UIS Strategy on S&T statistics International Review of S&T Statistics & Indicators 2002-03 Resulting priorities: Immediate term: R&D personnel & expenditure Human resources devoted to S&T Science education & Higher education International mobility Gender Medium term: Innovation data Just started! Longer term: Output & Impact
www.uis.unesco.org Lines of action 1.S&T survey operation and data guardianship 2.Training in S&T statistics: workshops & other training activities 3.Standard setting and methodological developments 4.Analysis and publications
www.uis.unesco.org 1. S&T Survey operation and data guardianship Global survey on statistics of science & technology Global database on S&T Statistics Data dissemination: on the UIS website and through contributions to other agencies 2011: pilot survey of innovation data
www.uis.unesco.org Survey on Statistics of Science & Technology Biennially. 2004, 2006 and 2008 S&T surveys completed. 4 th round launched in June 2010. Results released on UIS website (http://stats.uis.unesco.org). OECD and Eurostat provide data for their Member States. RICYT provides data for Latin America. UIS keeps direct contact with national S&T statisticians.
www.uis.unesco.org Data collection R&D Personnel By sector of employment, occupation, qualification, and field of science In headcount and FTE By gender R&D Expenditure By sector of performance and source of funds New: by type of activity and field of science
www.uis.unesco.org UIS 2006 and 2008 Surveys on R&D: response rates & published data Regions (Countries and Territories covered) Responses Q 2006 Responses Q 2008 Published data Sub-Saharan Africa (46) 2759% 61% 2146% 2759% 61% Arab States-Africa (8) 675%450%675% Asia (31, excl. Arab States & OECD ) 2168% 65% 2168% 63% 2477% 65% Arab States - Asia (12) 758%650%433% Americas (19, excl. RICYT & OECD ) 421%4 4 Europe (16, excl. OECD & Eurostat ) 956%1169%1063% Oceania (17, excl. OECD ) 00%424%318% Sub-total (149) 7450%7148%7852% Data from other sources: OECD + Eurostat (43) Total coverage 43100% RICYT (23) 1983% Total (215) 14065%13764%14065%
www.uis.unesco.org Respondents to the UIS S&T 2006-08-10 questionnaires from Arab States Country 2006 S&T Survey2008 S&T Survey2010 S&T Survey AlgeriaData providedData not provided BahrainData not provided Partial response DjiboutiData not provided EgyptData not providedData providedReceived IraqData not providedData providedReceived JordanData providedData not providedReceived KuwaitData provided Received LebanonData not provided Libyan Arab JamahiriyaData not providedData provided MauritaniaData not provided
www.uis.unesco.org Respondents to the UIS S&T 2006-08-10 questionnaires from Arab States – contd Country 2006 S&T Survey2008 S&T Survey2010 S&T survey MoroccoData provided Received OmanData not provided Palestinian Aut. TerritoriesData providedData not providedReceived QatarData not provided Saudi ArabiaData not providedData providedReceived SudanData providedData not provided Syrian Arab RepublicData not provided TunisiaData provided United Arab EmiratesData not provided Received YemenData not provided
www.uis.unesco.org Number of researchers worldwide Source: UIS estimates, August 2010
www.uis.unesco.org Which countries host the greatest number of researchers? Number of researchers, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005. Data in this graph are based on FTE data.
www.uis.unesco.org What are the national research densities? Researchers per million inhabitants, 2007 or latest available year 0–100 per million 101–300 per million 301–1000 per million 1001–2000 per million Data not available 2001 per million and above Note: Data in this map are based on FTE. However, figures in headcounts (HC) were considered for the following countries since the FTE figures were not available: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belarus; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Rep.; Cuba; Dem. Rep. of the Congo; El Salvador; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Guinea; Honduras; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Libya; Mauritius; Mongolia; Montenegro; Nauru; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Peru; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Saudi Arabia; Sudan; Tajikistan; Trinidad and Tobago; Uganda; U.S. Virgin Islands; and Zambia. This has to be taken into account when interpreting the data. Source: UIS, August 2010
www.uis.unesco.org The gender gap in science. Women as a share of total researchers, 2007 or latest available year 0%–30% 30.1%–45% 45.1%–55% 55.1%–70% Data not available 70.1%–100% Source: UIS, August 2010Note: Data in this map are based on HC, except for Congo and India (based on FTE).
www.uis.unesco.org R&D Personnel, Arab countries, 2007 or last available year CountryYearResearchers (FTE) Researchers per million inhabitants (FTE) Algeria 2005 * 5,593170 Bahrain… …… Djibouti… …… Egypt 200749,363617 Iraq… …… Jordan 2003 * (HC) 15,8913,030 Kuwait 2007 * 472166 Lebanon… …… Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 2007 * (HC) 37360 Mauritania… …… Morocco 2006 * 19,972647 Source: UIS S&T Database, 2009. FTE: Full-time equivalents, HC: Head count instead of Full-time equivalent, * Based on partial data
www.uis.unesco.org R&D Personnel, Arab countries, 2007 or last available year CountryYearResearchers (FTE) Researchers per million inhabitants (FTE) Oman ……… Palestinian Autonomous Territories… …… Qatar… …… Saudi Arabia 2007 * (HC) 1,02441 Sudan 2005 (HC) 11,208290 Syrian Arab Republic… …… Tunisia 200615,8331,588 United Arab Emirates… …… Yemen… …… Source: UIS S&T Database, 2009. FTE: Full-time equivalents, HC: Head count instead of Full-time equivalent, * Based on partial data
www.uis.unesco.org Researchers per million inhabitants, 2005 or latest available year – Arab States Source: UIS, September 2007 0–100 per million 101–300 per million 301–1000 per million 1001–2000 per million Data not available 2001 per million and above
www.uis.unesco.org Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) worldwide Source: UIS estimates, August 2010
www.uis.unesco.org Worlds top 10 leaders in R&D investment GERD (000 PPP$), 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010 Note: +1 = 2008.
www.uis.unesco.org A snap-shot of R&D intensity. Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP, 2007 or latest available year 0.00%–0.25% 0.26%–0.50% 0.51%–1.00% 1.01%–2.00% Data not available 2.01% and above Source: UIS, August 2010
www.uis.unesco.org Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D (GERD) indicators in Arab States, 2007 or latest available year CountryYear GERD (millions) – Local currency GERD - PPP$ (millions) GERD – as % of GDP GERD per inhabitant (PPP$) Algeria2005 * 4,9941570.07%4.8 Egypt2007 * 1,6809110.23%11.4 Kuwait2007 * 281100.09%38.7 Morocco2006 * 3,670 7650.64%25.0 Saudi Arabia2007 * 7052710.05%11.0 Sudan2005 1931790.29%4.6 Tunisia2005384 6611.02%66.9 * Based on partial dataSource: UIS S&T Database, 2009
www.uis.unesco.org GERD as a percentage of GDP, 2005 or latest available year - Arab States Source: UIS, September 2007 0.00%–0.25% 0.26%–0.50% 0.51%–1.00% 1.01%–2.00% Data not available 2.01% and above
www.uis.unesco.org A breakdown of R&D investment in the Americas. GERD by sector of performance, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -5 = 2002.
www.uis.unesco.org A breakdown of R&D investment in Europe. GERD by sector of performance, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -3 = 2004.
www.uis.unesco.org A breakdown of R&D investment in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. GERD by sector of performance, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -5 = 2002.
www.uis.unesco.org A breakdown of researchers in the Americas. Researchers by sector of employment, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010 Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -4 = 2003, -5 = 2002. Data in this graph are based on FTE data (* based on HC data).
www.uis.unesco.org A breakdown of researchers in Europe. Researchers by sector of employment, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010 Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -3 = 2004. Data in this graph are based on FTE data (* based on HC data).
www.uis.unesco.org A breakdown of researchers in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Researchers by sector of employment, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010 Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -4 = 2003, -5 = 2002, -6 = 2001, -7 = 2000, - 10 = 1997. Data in this graph are based on FTE data (* based on HC data).
www.uis.unesco.org Funding in the Americas. GERD by source of funds, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Notes: +1 = 2008, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -5 = 2002.
www.uis.unesco.org Funding in Europe. GERD by source of funds, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -4 = 2003, -5 = 2002
www.uis.unesco.org Funding in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. GERD by source of funds, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -5 = 2002, -6 = 2001.
www.uis.unesco.org Quality of data Efficient use of resources Consistency over time and space Accessibility and affordability Validity and reliability Comparability through standards Relevance to policy Potential for disaggregation Currency and punctuality Coherence across sources Clarity and transparency
www.uis.unesco.org 2. Capacity building There are many problems: Lack of understanding of importance of S&T (indicators) Lack of political will and action Lack of coordination Lack of trained personnel High staff turnover
www.uis.unesco.org Capacity building (2) Measurement problems: Measuring real effort (full-time equivalents) Private sector R&D Budget data vs. surveys Role of foreign entities
www.uis.unesco.org S&T statistics workshops Increase the number of countries regularly producing quality S&T indicators. Create local capacities and establish sustainable local S&T statistics systems. Promote the use of S&T indicators for evidence-based S&T policy making. Share experiences with other developing countries and address problems. Gain knowledge about the particular characteristics of S&T statistics data. Demonstrate good practices in other countries of the region.
www.uis.unesco.org UIS S&T Statistics workshops 2005:Uganda, India 2006:Indonesia, Senegal, Kazakhstan 2007:Tunisia, FYR of Macedonia, Jordan, Brazil, Russia, Cameroon 2008:Oman, Cambodia, Botswana 2009:Kenya, Egypt 2010:Mali, Syria, Uzbekistan, Nepal But also contributing to similar workshops of partner organisations (e.g. RICYT, NEPAD)
www.uis.unesco.org Countries that have participated in UNESCO S&T statistics workshops 2005-2009 Countries and territories covered but absent Countries and territories not yet covered Countries and territories not targeted Countries and territories covered
www.uis.unesco.org Results of workshops Increased response rate – non-responding countries learn how to do it from UIS and neighbours. Immediate problems solved. Increased data quality – improved understanding of application of international standards. Face to face contacts = more effective networking. Inputs to UIS programme development.
www.uis.unesco.org 3. Standard setting/methodological developments Careers of Doctoral Holders – CDH (since 2004) Measuring Innovation in Developing countries: Annex to the Oslo Manual (2005) Will be presented separately Measuring R&D in Developing Countries: Technical Guide and Annex to the Frascati Manual (2010) Will be presented separately
www.uis.unesco.org The careers of doctorate holders survey (CDH) A joint project with the OECD and Eurostat. Methodology developed from scratch. Aimed both at developed and developing countries. With participation from experts from both developed and developing countries. Promoting the methodology by encouraging developing countries to conduct such surveys and produce cross-nationally comparable statistics on careers of doctorate holders.
www.uis.unesco.org Relevance of the CDH project Focus on the crucial role of highly qualified individuals who represent a key to the production, application and transmission of knowledge. Statistics on the global trends in human resources for Science and Technology (HRST) very weak. Quality and comparability of international data on migration is particularly weak. Diversity of data collection methods hinders international comparability, and does not provide information on career paths and mobility patterns.
www.uis.unesco.org Objectives of CDH Objectives: To design an internationally comparable tool for tracking the careers of doctorates holders and highly qualified people in different countries. To collect and exchange information on the career paths of holders of doctorates from existing data sources and the new survey tool.
www.uis.unesco.org CDH toolkit Components: Model questionnaire and Instruction Manual Output tables and variables definitions Methodological guidelines Bridge table model questionnaire - output tables See: http://www.uis.unesco.org/ev.php?URL_ID=5219& URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201 and www.oecd.org/sti/cdh
www.uis.unesco.org CDH modules Doctoral Education (EDU) Early Career Research positions (ECR) Employment situation (EMP) International mobility (MOB) Career-related experience (CAR) Personal characteristics (PER)
www.uis.unesco.org 4. Some publications Data publicly available at: www.uis.unesco.org UIS Publications (can be downloaded from the UIS website): S&T Bulletin 1 – Investment in R&D; S&T Bulletin 2 – Bibliometric Indicators; S&T Bulletin 3 – Women in Science Fact sheet: R&D statistics (recently updated) UNESCO Science Report 2010 (out in November) International Report on Science, Technology and Gender 2007 UNESCO World Report History of Science Statistics at UNESCO Paper on current status of International Science statistics for Africa in African Statistical Journal
www.uis.unesco.org Collaborations / Partnerships UNESCO HQs World Bank Eurostat AU-NEPAD ADB ATPS ISDB EU-Medibtikar IDRC (Canada) IRD (France) UNESCO offices worldwide OECD RICYT (Latin America) ALECSO Arab Academy of Science ISESCO Inter-Academy Council INRS (Quebec, Canada) ASEAN
www.uis.unesco.org Way forward There is still a lot to do! UIS needs to keep direct contact with statisticians: Quality and relevance. Countries to establish sustainable S&T statistics systems, involving line ministries (S&T Ministries or Research Councils) and National Statistical Offices. Looking forward to further cooperation.