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Www.uis.unesco.org STI Indicators and links to STI policies + UIS activities in the collection and analysis of STI indicators and overview of data for.

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Science policy and the linkage to indicators National training workshop Amman, Jordan October 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.uis.unesco.org STI Indicators and links to STI policies + UIS activities in the collection and analysis of STI indicators and overview of data for."— Presentation transcript:

1 STI Indicators and links to STI policies + UIS activities in the collection and analysis of STI indicators and overview of data for the Caribbean CARIBBEAN REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION (STI) INDICATORS St Georges, Grenada 1-3 February 2011

2 Objectives of this presentation Science policy and the linkage to indicators Present the work that UIS does to support the collection and analysis of STI indicators in developing countries Provide an overview of the availability of STI indicators worldwide and in the region

3 Science policy and the linkage to indicators

4 Science, technology and innovation (STI) STI universally recognised now as one of the main drivers of economic growth… … and therefore of poverty reduction as well Governments should aim to harness the benefits of STI Hence the need for a national STI policy Integrated in the overall national strategic plan Coordinated between the various actors that have a stake (e.g. Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Higher Education, etc.)

5 The need for monitoring Monitoring and benchmarking is critical in assessing, implementing and evaluating policy If you dont know where you are, how do you know in which direction you need to go? Policies often include targets: need for (statistical) measures to assess progress E.g. Lisbon target (3%) China: 2.5% by 2020 CPA: 1% in Africa

6 STI policy, evidence/data needed: indicators to tell a story Do I need to invest in R&D or in Higher Education? Better know how much you are investing already What is a convenient and relevant measure? % of GDP? Number of graduates? In which areas should I invest predominantly? In which areas am I already investing? Which are important economic sectors, in mining, agriculture, industry, services, etc? Which are crucial public sectors, and what are national or regional peculiarities? (health, environment, utilities, defense,…) Do I need to improve quality of higher education or research? Better know how you compare to other countries Are there sufficient links of universities and institutes to industry?

7 Some examples – UNESCO

8 Some examples – EU The EU innovation Scoreboard is "an annual assessment of innovation performance in the individual Member States of the European Union. It was an explicit request of the European Council of Ministers meeting in Lisbon in March 2000

9 Some examples – OECD Innovation strategy

10 Some examples – AU/NEPAD The ASTII Initiative is a programme in the Africas Science and Technology Consolidated Plan of Action (CPA) (adopted in 2005) by the African Ministerial Conference on Science and Technology (AMCOST), resolving to establish an inter-governmental committee comprising of relevant national authorities to develop, adopt and use common indicators to survey and prepare an African Science, technology and Innovation report.

11 Some examples – Latin America

12 UIS activities in the collection and analysis of STI indicators and Overview of data for the Caribbean

13 UIS is the UN lead agency for S&T statistics Official S&T data source for: UN Statistical Division: UN Statistical Year Book UNDP: Human Development Report World Bank: World Development Indicators UNESCO Reports: UNESCO Science Report UNESCO World Report - Towards Knowledge Societies International Report on S&T and Gender

14 UIS Strategy on S&T statistics International Review of S&T Statistics & Indicators Resulting priorities: Immediate term: R&D personnel & expenditure Human resources devoted to S&T Science education & Higher education International mobility Gender Medium term: Innovation data Just started! Longer term: Output & Impact

15 Lines of action 1.S&T survey operation and data guardianship 2.Training in S&T statistics: workshops & other training activities 3.Standard setting and methodological developments 4.Analysis and publications

16 1. S&T Survey operation and data guardianship Global survey on statistics of science & technology Global database on S&T Statistics Data dissemination: on the UIS website and through contributions to other agencies 2011: pilot survey of innovation data

17 Survey on Statistics of Science & Technology Biennially. 2004, 2006 and 2008 S&T surveys completed. 4 th round launched in June Results released on UIS website (http://stats.uis.unesco.org). OECD and Eurostat provide data for their Member States. RICYT provides data for Latin America and for a few Caribbean countries. UIS keeps direct contact with national S&T statisticians.

18 Data collection R&D Personnel By sector of employment, occupation, qualification, and field of science In headcount and FTE By gender R&D Expenditure By sector of performance and source of funds New: by type of activity and field of science

19 Data collection in LAC

20 UIS 2008 and 2010 Surveys on R&D: response rates & published data Regions (Countries and Territories covered) Responses Q 2008 Responses Q 2010 Published data Sub-Saharan Africa (45) 2044% 45% 1636% 38% 2658% 60% Arab States-Africa (8) 450%4 675% Asia (31, excl. Arab States & OECD ) 2168% 63% 2065% 63% 2477% 65% Arab States - Asia (12) 650%758%433% Americas (14, excl. RICYT & OECD ) 429%00%429% Europe (16, excl. OECD & Eurostat ) 1169%638%1063% Oceania (17, excl. OECD ) 424%16%318% Sub-total (143) 7049%5438%7754% Data from other sources: OECD + Eurostat (45) Total coverage 45100% RICYT (25, incl. 10 Caribbean ) 1976% Total (213) 13463%11855%14166%

21 How many researchers are there? Number of researchers worldwide Source: UIS, June 2010

22 How many researchers are there? Number of researchers worldwide Source: UIS, June 2010 Note: Data for the USA are for 2006 instead of 2007

23 Where are researchers located? Shares of world researchers by principal regions, 2002 and 2007 (%) Source: UIS, September 2009

24 Shares of world researchers by principal regions/countries, 2002 and 2007 (%) Source: UIS estimates, September 2009

25 Which countries host the greatest number of researchers? Number of researchers, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010

26 Researchers in the Caribbean Researchers in headcountTotal % female per million inhabitants per thousand labour force Cuba (2008) Saint Lucia (1999) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2002) Trinidad and Tobago (2007)

27 What are the national research densities? Researchers per million inhabitants, 2007 or latest available year 0 – 100 per million 101 – 300 per million 301 – 1000 per million 1001 – 2000 per million Data not available 2001 per million and above Source: UIS, August 2010

28 What are the national research densities? Researchers per million inhabitants, 2007 or latest available year 0 – 100 per million 101 – 300 per million 301 – 1000 per million 1001 – 2000 per million Data not available 2001 per million and above Source: UIS, August 2010

29 How many researchers are there? Researchers per million inhabitants, by principal regions/countries, 2007 or latest year available Notes: -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005 Source: UIS estimates, September 2009

30 The gender gap in science. Women as a share of total researchers, 2007 or latest available year 0% – 30% 30.1% – 45% 45.1% – 55% 55.1% – 70% Data not available 70.1% – 100% Source: UIS, August 2010Note: Data in this map are based on HC, except for Congo (based on FTE).

31 The gender gap in science. Women as a share of total researchers, 2007 or latest available year 0% – 30% 30.1% – 45% 45.1% – 55% 55.1% – 70% Data not available 70.1% – 100% Source: UIS, August 2010Note: Data in this map are based on HC, except for Congo (based on FTE).

32 Gender gap in research career? Proportion of women and men graduates in tertiary education and those employed as researchers, 2008 Source: UIS, October 2010

33 Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) worldwide (in Purchasing Power Parity Dollars) Source: UIS, June 2010

34 Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) worldwide (in Purchasing Power Parity Dollars) Source: UIS, June 2010

35 Where are R&D investments made? Shares of world R&D expenditure (GERD) by principal regions, 2002 and 2007 (%) Source: UIS, September 2009

36 Shares of world R&D expenditure (GERD) by principal regions/countries, 2002 and 2007 (%) Source: UIS estimates, September 2009

37 Worlds top 10 leaders in R&D investment GERD ( billions PPP$), 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010

38 A snap-shot of R&D intensity. Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP, 2007 or latest available year 0.00% – 0.25% 0.26% – 0.50% 0.51% – 1.00% 1.01% – 2.00% Data not available 2.01% and above Source: UIS, August 2010

39 A snap-shot of R&D intensity. Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP, 2007 or latest available year 0.00% – 0.25% 0.26% – 0.50% 0.51% – 1.00% 1.01% – 2.00% Data not available 2.01% and above Source: UIS, August 2010

40 R&D expenditure in the Caribbean R&D expenditure in '000 local Currency as a % of GDP in constant 2005 PPP ('000) per capita (in constant 2005 PPP) Bermuda (1997) Cuba (2008) Jamaica (2002) Saint Lucia (1999) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2002) Trinidad and Tobago (2007)

41 Which regions are most R&D intensive? Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a % of GDP by principal regions/countries, 2007 or latest year available Notes: -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005Source: UIS estimates, September 2009

42 R&D intensity (GERD as a % of GDP) by principal regions, 1990 – 2007 Sources: For 1990 – 2000, UIS estimates, For , UIS estimates, September 2009.

43 Which sectors perform the most R&D? A breakdown of R&D investment in Europe. GERD by sector of performance, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -3 = 2004.

44 A breakdown of R&D investment in the Americas. GERD by sector of performance, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -5 = 2002.

45 A breakdown of R&D investment in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. GERD by sector of performance, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -5 = 2002.

46 Which sectors finance the most in R&D? Funding in Europe. GERD by source of funds, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -4 = 2003, -5 = 2002

47 Funding in the Americas. GERD by source of funds, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Notes: +1 = 2008, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -5 = 2002.

48 Funding in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. GERD by source of funds, 2007 or latest available year Source: UIS, August 2010Note: +1 = 2008, -1 = 2006, -2 = 2005, -3 = 2004, -5 = 2002, -6 = 2001.

49 Quality of data Efficient use of resources Consistency over time and space Accessibility and affordability Validity and reliability Comparability through standards Relevance to policy Potential for disaggregation Currency and punctuality Coherence across sources Clarity and transparency

50 2. Capacity building There are many problems: Lack of understanding of importance of S&T (indicators) Lack of political will and action Lack of coordination Lack of trained personnel High staff turnover

51 Capacity building (2) Measurement problems: Measuring real effort (full-time equivalents) Private sector R&D Budget data vs. surveys Role of foreign entities

52 S&T statistics workshops Increase the number of countries regularly producing quality S&T indicators. Create local capacities and establish sustainable local S&T statistics systems. Promote the use of S&T indicators for evidence-based S&T policy making. Share experiences with other developing countries and address problems. Gain knowledge about the particular characteristics of S&T statistics data. Demonstrate good practices in other countries of the region.

53 UIS S&T Statistics workshops 2005:Uganda, India 2006:Indonesia, Senegal, Kazakhstan 2007:Tunisia, FYR of Macedonia, Jordan, Brazil, Russia, Cameroon 2008:Oman, Cambodia, Botswana 2009:Kenya, Egypt 2010:Mali, Syria, Uzbekistan, Nepal But also contributing to similar workshops of partner organisations (e.g. RICYT, NEPAD)

54 Countries that have participated in UNESCO S&T statistics workshops Countries and territories not yet covered Countries and territories not targeted Countries and territories covered

55 Results of workshops Increased response rate – non-responding countries learn how to do it from UIS and neighbours. Immediate problems solved. Increased data quality – improved understanding of application of international standards. Face to face contacts = more effective networking. Inputs to UIS programme development.

56 3. Standard setting/methodological developments Careers of Doctoral Holders – CDH (since 2004) Measuring Innovation in Developing countries: Annex to the Oslo Manual (2005) Will be presented separately Measuring R&D in Developing Countries: Technical Guide and Annex to the Frascati Manual (2010) Will be presented separately

57 The careers of doctorate holders survey (CDH) A joint project with the OECD and Eurostat. Methodology developed from scratch. Aimed both at developed and developing countries. With participation from experts from both developed and developing countries. Promoting the methodology by encouraging developing countries to conduct such surveys and produce cross-nationally comparable statistics on careers of doctorate holders.

58 Relevance of the CDH project Focus on the crucial role of highly qualified individuals who represent a key to the production, application and transmission of knowledge. Statistics on the global trends in human resources for Science and Technology (HRST) very weak. Quality and comparability of international data on migration is particularly weak. Diversity of data collection methods hinders international comparability, and does not provide information on career paths and mobility patterns.

59 Objectives of CDH Objectives: To design an internationally comparable tool for tracking the careers of doctorates holders and highly qualified people in different countries. To collect and exchange information on the career paths of holders of doctorates from existing data sources and the new survey tool.

60 CDH toolkit Components: Model questionnaire and Instruction Manual Output tables and variables definitions Methodological guidelines Bridge table model questionnaire - output tables See: URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201 and

61 CDH modules Doctoral Education (EDU) Early Career Research positions (ECR) Employment situation (EMP) International mobility (MOB) Career-related experience (CAR) Personal characteristics (PER)

62 4. Some publications Data publicly available at: UIS Publications (can be downloaded from the UIS website): S&T Bulletin 1 – Investment in R&D; S&T Bulletin 2 – Bibliometric Indicators; S&T Bulletin 3 – Women in Science Fact sheet: R&D statistics (recently updated) UNESCO Science Report 2010 International Report on Science, Technology and Gender 2007 UNESCO World Report History of Science Statistics at UNESCO Paper on current status of International Science statistics for Africa in African Statistical Journal

63 Collaborations / Partnerships UNESCO HQs World Bank Eurostat AU-NEPAD ADB ATPS ISDB EU-Medibtikar IDRC (Canada) IRD (France) UNESCO offices worldwide OECD RICYT (Latin America) ALECSO Arab Academy of Science ISESCO Inter-Academy Council INRS (Quebec, Canada) ASEAN

64 Way forward There is still a lot to do! UIS needs to keep direct contact with statisticians: Quality and relevance. Countries to establish sustainable S&T statistics systems, involving line ministries (S&T Ministries or Research Councils) and National Statistical Offices. Looking forward to further cooperation.

65 Thank you!


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