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1 Report of the TEAP XXI/9 Task Force Lambert Kuijpers Miguel Quintero Dan Verdonik Shiqiu Zhang TF Co-chairs TEAP members UNEP OEWG-30 Decision XXI/9.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Report of the TEAP XXI/9 Task Force Lambert Kuijpers Miguel Quintero Dan Verdonik Shiqiu Zhang TF Co-chairs TEAP members UNEP OEWG-30 Decision XXI/9."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Report of the TEAP XXI/9 Task Force Lambert Kuijpers Miguel Quintero Dan Verdonik Shiqiu Zhang TF Co-chairs TEAP members UNEP OEWG-30 Decision XXI/9 Geneva 15 June 2010

2 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/92 Decision XXI/9 Taken at MOP-21 1.To request the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP), in its May 2010 Progress Report and subsequently in its 2010 full assessment, to provide the latest technical and economic assessment of available and emerging alternatives and substitutes to HCFCs; and the Scientific Assessment Panel (SAP) in its 2010 assessment to assess, using a comprehensive methodology, the impact of alternatives to HCFCs on the environment, including on the climate; and both the SAP and the TEAP to integrate the findings in their assessments into a synthesis report;

3 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/93 Decision XXI/9 Paragraph 2 To request the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (2a) To list all sub-sectors using HCFCs, with concrete examples of technologies where low-GWP alternatives are used, indicating what substances are used, conditions of application, their costs, relative energy efficiency of the applications and, to the extent possible, available markets and percentage share in those markets, to compare these alternatives with other existing technologies, in particular, high-GWP technologies that are in use in the same sectors;

4 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/94 Decision XXI/9 Paragraph 2 (2b) To identify and characterize the implemented measures for ensuring safe application of low-GWP alternative technologies and products as well as barriers to their phase-in, in the different sub-sectors, collecting concrete information from various sources;

5 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/95 Decision XXI/9 Paragraph 2 (2c) To provide a categorization and reorganization of the information previously provided in accordance with decision XX/8 as appropriate, to inform the Parties of the uses for which low- or no-GWP and/or other suitable technologies are or will soon be commercialized, including to the extent possible the predicted amount of high-GWP alternatives to ozone-depleting substances uses that can potentially be replaced.

6 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/96 Process TEAP established a Task Force to update data contained in the XX/8 report and to report on the other issues requested in paragraph 2 of XXI/9 TEAP established a Task Force to update data contained in the XX/8 report and to report on the other issues requested in paragraph 2 of XXI/9 Task Force was co-chaired by TEAP members Kuijpers, Verdonik, Quintero and Zhang Task Force was co-chaired by TEAP members Kuijpers, Verdonik, Quintero and Zhang 12 Chapter Lead Authors and 27 Reviewing Authors participated 12 Chapter Lead Authors and 27 Reviewing Authors participated TEAP review took place in April 2010 (Madrid), was followed by a final TF review and agreement by consensus TEAP review took place in April 2010 (Madrid), was followed by a final TF review and agreement by consensus

7 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/97 Kyoto Protocol and GWPs The Kyoto Protocol uses GWP values as specified in the Second IPCC Assessment Report (SAR) and has not considered later IPCC revisions of GWP values The Kyoto Protocol uses GWP values as specified in the Second IPCC Assessment Report (SAR) and has not considered later IPCC revisions of GWP values Values are based on a 100 year time horizon Values are based on a 100 year time horizon GWPs of very short lived substances are not addressed in the latest IPCC AR4; important issue is that local effects dominate over global total mixing GWPs of very short lived substances are not addressed in the latest IPCC AR4; important issue is that local effects dominate over global total mixing The Kyoto Protocol has never defined high-GWP and low-GWP; they are comparative in nature The Kyoto Protocol has never defined high-GWP and low-GWP; they are comparative in nature

8 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/98 Classification on a GWP Scale The TEAP proposes the following classification: LOW GWP: < 300 LOW GWP: < 300 GWP < 30 ultra low GWP < 30 ultra low GWP < 100 very low GWP < 100 very low MODERATE GWP: 300-1,000 MODERATE GWP: 300-1,000 HIGH GWP: > 1,000 HIGH GWP: > 1,000 GWP > 3,000 very high GWP > 3,000 very high GWP > 10,000 ultra high GWP > 10,000 ultra high

9 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/99 Toxicity and Flammability High or Moderate GWP substances or mixtures may be required when Low GWP toxic or flammable substances cannot be applied in certain types of products, or under certain circumstances High or Moderate GWP substances or mixtures may be required when Low GWP toxic or flammable substances cannot be applied in certain types of products, or under certain circumstances New Low GWP substances are under development New Low GWP substances are under development Future development changes in equipment design will be determining which chemicals can be selected Future development changes in equipment design will be determining which chemicals can be selected

10 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/910 Methods and Metrics Ultimate choice of technology to phase out HCFCs will be based on ozone depletion and on climate, health, safety, affordability and availability aspects (XIX/6) Ultimate choice of technology to phase out HCFCs will be based on ozone depletion and on climate, health, safety, affordability and availability aspects (XIX/6) Choosing the lowest GWP substance will not always be the best selection (energy use in manufacturing and during operation is also important) Choosing the lowest GWP substance will not always be the best selection (energy use in manufacturing and during operation is also important) Life-Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) is the most comprehensive method Life-Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) is the most comprehensive method LCCP models need more development to be transparent and adaptable to local ambient conditions LCCP models need more development to be transparent and adaptable to local ambient conditions

11 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/911 Domestic refrigerators and freezers About 63% of new refrigerators employ HFC-134a About 36% employ hydrocarbons, mainly HC-600a (isobutane) It is predicted that, within 10 years, under business-as- usual, at least 75% of all new production will apply hydrocarbons; required changes in standards are underway and regulations could ease transition No identified technology can compete for cost or efficiency with conventional vapour compression technology for mass production

12 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/ July Commercial Refrigeration Commercial refrigeration includes three different categories of systems: stand-alone equipment, condensing units, and supermarket centralised systems Commercial refrigeration includes three different categories of systems: stand-alone equipment, condensing units, and supermarket centralised systems The populations of vending machines, stand-alone equipment, and condensing units are about 20, 32 and 34 million units, respectively The populations of vending machines, stand-alone equipment, and condensing units are about 20, 32 and 34 million units, respectively Solutions to replace HCFC-22 depend on the specific applications in each category Solutions to replace HCFC-22 depend on the specific applications in each category The majority of stand-alone equipment based on HFC- 134a technology; energy efficiency HCs is comparable The majority of stand-alone equipment based on HFC- 134a technology; energy efficiency HCs is comparable

13 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/ July Commercial Refrigeration (2) Condensing units have as the dominant HCFC-22 replacements HFC-134a and R-404A; it is a cost driven market; HCs, ammonia and carbon dioxide tested and installed in a number of supermarkets Condensing units have as the dominant HCFC-22 replacements HFC-134a and R-404A; it is a cost driven market; HCs, ammonia and carbon dioxide tested and installed in a number of supermarkets Centralised systems are using indirect systems; the HCFC-22 replacements are R-404A, HFC-134a, ammonia, HCs, carbon dioxide and low-GWP HFCs blended with HFC-32 Important current trend consists of cascading systems with HFC-134a in the high temperature and carbon dioxide in the low temperature loop

14 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/ July Transport refrigeration Majority of equipment utilises high-GWP HFCs Majority of equipment utilises high-GWP HFCs HCFC-22 is used mainly in aging vessels and road transport in developing countries HCFC-22 is used mainly in aging vessels and road transport in developing countries Development of systems with low-GWP chemicals is underway but faces technical challenges because of robustness, low weight, corrosion resistance and safety requirements Development of systems with low-GWP chemicals is underway but faces technical challenges because of robustness, low weight, corrosion resistance and safety requirements The most promising low-GWP substances are hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide The most promising low-GWP substances are hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide

15 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/915 Large Size Refrigeration Ammonia has been used as THE refrigerant for a long time, with significant regional variations Ammonia has been used as THE refrigerant for a long time, with significant regional variations In applications where the toxicity of ammonia is unacceptable, carbon dioxide has been an alternative In applications where the toxicity of ammonia is unacceptable, carbon dioxide has been an alternative HCFC-22 drop-ins have not been commercialised HCFC-22 drop-ins have not been commercialised High-GWP HFCs are not widely used in large size refrigeration systems; if adopted then they have been used in low charge systems High-GWP HFCs are not widely used in large size refrigeration systems; if adopted then they have been used in low charge systems It is unlikely that the low-GWP HFCs developed for other applications will be used in this sector It is unlikely that the low-GWP HFCs developed for other applications will be used in this sector

16 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/916 Unitary AC Nearly all air cooled AC used HCFC-22 before 2000, and the transition is complete or well underway in developed countries Nearly all air cooled AC used HCFC-22 before 2000, and the transition is complete or well underway in developed countries In developed countries, high-GWP HFCs have been the dominant replacements, with R-410A the most widely used (with R-407C in certain regions); hydrocarbons are applied in low charge applications In developed countries, high-GWP HFCs have been the dominant replacements, with R-410A the most widely used (with R-407C in certain regions); hydrocarbons are applied in low charge applications In developing countries, short term replacements will be R-407C and R-410A, with hydrocarbons for lower charge applications In developing countries, short term replacements will be R-407C and R-410A, with hydrocarbons for lower charge applications

17 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/917 Unitary AC HFC-32 is a lower GWP alternative for HCFC-22 than R-410 A (one third of the GWP) HFC-32 is a lower GWP alternative for HCFC-22 than R-410 A (one third of the GWP) As experience with flammability increases, HFC-32 is likely to become the future HCFC-22 substitute, rather than R-410A As experience with flammability increases, HFC-32 is likely to become the future HCFC-22 substitute, rather than R-410A Usage of hydrocarbons is expected to increase Usage of hydrocarbons is expected to increase Low-GWP HFCs might become replacements for the high-GWP HFC blends; however, lower vapour density will impact equipment dimensions and costs Low-GWP HFCs might become replacements for the high-GWP HFC blends; however, lower vapour density will impact equipment dimensions and costs Carbon dioxide will increase in use for lower ambient temperatures Carbon dioxide will increase in use for lower ambient temperatures

18 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/918 Chillers Centrifugals employ HFC-134a and HCFC-123 (very low GWP); at this time it is not known whether low- GWP options (such as low-GWP HFCs, e.g. HFC- 1234yf) will be found suitable for chillers Centrifugals employ HFC-134a and HCFC-123 (very low GWP); at this time it is not known whether low- GWP options (such as low-GWP HFCs, e.g. HFC- 1234yf) will be found suitable for chillers Ammonia chillers are more common in the smaller sizes with different compressor types; there are HCs in a limited number of chiller applications; safety concerns are largely overcome in certain regions Ammonia chillers are more common in the smaller sizes with different compressor types; there are HCs in a limited number of chiller applications; safety concerns are largely overcome in certain regions Carbon dioxide is an alternative for chillers that also produce hot water Carbon dioxide is an alternative for chillers that also produce hot water

19 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/919 Chillers (2) Hydrocarbons are used in a limited number of small air-cooled chiller installations in Europe. Safety issues are of concern particularly for indoor chiller installations. In regions where companies, governments, and the public support hydrocarbon solutions, safety concerns have been largely overcome by engineering, technician training, and changes in regulations Hydrocarbons are used in a limited number of small air-cooled chiller installations in Europe. Safety issues are of concern particularly for indoor chiller installations. In regions where companies, governments, and the public support hydrocarbon solutions, safety concerns have been largely overcome by engineering, technician training, and changes in regulations Water (R-718) has been applied in a few cases Water (R-718) has been applied in a few cases

20 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/920 Mobile Air Conditioning HCFCs are mainly applied in bus and train AC; the alternatives are HFC-134a and carbon dioxide HCFCs are mainly applied in bus and train AC; the alternatives are HFC-134a and carbon dioxide The replacement of HFC-134a in passenger cars will proceed The replacement of HFC-134a in passenger cars will proceed The original HFC-134a replacement options with GWP<150 are carbon dioxide and HFC-152a; the most important current alternative is HFC-1234yf The original HFC-134a replacement options with GWP<150 are carbon dioxide and HFC-152a; the most important current alternative is HFC-1234yf All options have comparable energy efficiency All options have comparable energy efficiency HFC-1234yf The emerging global car manufacturers apparent choice is HFC-1234yf

21 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/ June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/9 21 Foams Foams compete with other product types in many insulation and other applications; mineral fibre continues to be the most important insulation type in most regions Foams compete with other product types in many insulation and other applications; mineral fibre continues to be the most important insulation type in most regions Low thermal conductivity foams gain market share, which is 30-40% in most regions Low thermal conductivity foams gain market share, which is 30-40% in most regions In polyurethane, hydrocarbons are the main replacements for HCFC-141b and also for high-GWP HFCs In polyurethane, hydrocarbons are the main replacements for HCFC-141b and also for high-GWP HFCs High-GWP HFC foams are more expensive than hydrocarbon foams High-GWP HFC foams are more expensive than hydrocarbon foams Many low-GWP options are emerging and being applied Many low-GWP options are emerging and being applied

22 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/ June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/ Low GWP alternatives for PU Foams Pros (+)Cons (-) HydrocarbonsNegligible GWP Good availability Low operating cost High flammability -> high conversion cost (Preblended hydrocarbons?) Not for spray foam Low GWP HFCs (short lived HFCs) Negligible GWP Non-flammable Availability and cost? Limited use experience Methyl FormateNegligible GWPLimited use experience Flammability? MethylalNegligible GWP Co-blowing agent data Limited experience as sole BA Flammability? CO 2 Use as co-blowing Alternative for spray foam Insulation value End-product cost

23 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/ June 2010 UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/ July 2009 UNEP Dialogue - Decision XX/8 23 XPS Foams Demand for energy saving measures is driving the growth of insulating XPS foams Demand for energy saving measures is driving the growth of insulating XPS foams In developing countries preferred blowing agents have been HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b for XPS In developing countries preferred blowing agents have been HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b for XPS In one developing country, Turkey, HFC-1234ze is being used in one pilot project In one developing country, Turkey, HFC-1234ze is being used in one pilot project In developed countries, the range of alternatives includes CO 2 and hydrocarbons in Europe and Japan; the USA also applies HFCs - HFC/ CO 2 mixtures In developed countries, the range of alternatives includes CO 2 and hydrocarbons in Europe and Japan; the USA also applies HFCs - HFC/ CO 2 mixtures

24 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/924 Fire Protection For halon 1301 systems, the replacement HCFC Blend A (HCFC-22, -124, -123) has achieved very minor market share For halon 1301 systems, the replacement HCFC Blend A (HCFC-22, -124, -123) has achieved very minor market share Replacements for Blend A are dry chemicals, water or foams, CO2, inert gases and fluoroketone Replacements for Blend A are dry chemicals, water or foams, CO2, inert gases and fluoroketone For halon 1211 portable extinguishers HCFC Blend B (mixture of HCFC-123, PFC-14 and argon) has achieved limited market share; no low-GWP chemicals presently commercialised to replace Blend B For halon 1211 portable extinguishers HCFC Blend B (mixture of HCFC-123, PFC-14 and argon) has achieved limited market share; no low-GWP chemicals presently commercialised to replace Blend B An unsaturated HBFC is currently being tested An unsaturated HBFC is currently being tested

25 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/925 Solvents HCFC solvents are HCFC-141b and HCFC-225 ca/cb HCFC solvents are HCFC-141b and HCFC-225 ca/cb HCFC-141b phased out in developed countries, but its use may still be increasing in developing countries HCFC-141b phased out in developed countries, but its use may still be increasing in developing countries Two HFC solvents currently available are HFC mee and HFC-c447ef Two HFC solvents currently available are HFC mee and HFC-c447ef For a variety of applications blends are made with HFC-43-10mee and several other chemicals; For a variety of applications blends are made with HFC-43-10mee and several other chemicals; HFC-c447ef remains in a niche use (mainly electronics); HFC-c447ef remains in a niche use (mainly electronics); Costs of high-GWP solvents will limit use Costs of high-GWP solvents will limit use

26 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/926 Solvents HCFC and HFC alternatives are NIK systems, hydrocarbons, alcohols, chlorocarbons and n- propyl bromide (n-PB) HCFC and HFC alternatives are NIK systems, hydrocarbons, alcohols, chlorocarbons and n- propyl bromide (n-PB) No single option available to completely replace HCFCs and HFCs No single option available to completely replace HCFCs and HFCs Large scale conversion to chlorinated solvents is unlikely; conversion to n-PB is possible but with toxicity concerns Large scale conversion to chlorinated solvents is unlikely; conversion to n-PB is possible but with toxicity concerns HFE-449sl and HFE-569sf2 are used as replacements for CFCs, but the relatively high cost prohibits large scale use HFE-449sl and HFE-569sf2 are used as replacements for CFCs, but the relatively high cost prohibits large scale use

27 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/92727 Inhaled therapy Metered dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) and novel delivery systems play an important role in treatment of asthma and COPD Metered dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) and novel delivery systems play an important role in treatment of asthma and COPD No single delivery system universally acceptable No single delivery system universally acceptable A range of therapeutic options is important A range of therapeutic options is important Based on current consumption and estimated growth rates for MDIs, HFC-134a and HFC-227ea consumption is estimated at 7,000-10,500 tonnes by 2015 Based on current consumption and estimated growth rates for MDIs, HFC-134a and HFC-227ea consumption is estimated at 7,000-10,500 tonnes by 2015 Switching all MDIs to DPIs implies an emission reduction of 13 Mtonnes CO 2 eq. annually Switching all MDIs to DPIs implies an emission reduction of 13 Mtonnes CO 2 eq. annually

28 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/92828 Conclusions TEAP proposes a classification of GWPs as HIGH >1000, MODERATE 300 – 1000 and LOW < 300 Each Sector / Subsector has a variety of low or moderate GWP alternatives available or under development Some Sectors / Subsectors may also have not-in-kind alternatives that are not Global Warming Substances Some Sectors / Subsectors may also have not-in-kind alternatives that are not Global Warming Substances Parties may wish to select alternatives with the lowest Climate Impact based upon life cycle analyses, such as LCCP and not based solely on GWP, as energy use or other life cycle emissions may contribute significantly to the total carbon equivalent emissions Parties may wish to select alternatives with the lowest Climate Impact based upon life cycle analyses, such as LCCP and not based solely on GWP, as energy use or other life cycle emissions may contribute significantly to the total carbon equivalent emissions

29 15 June 2010UNEP OEWG-30 - TF Decision XXI/929 Thank you !


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