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1 Indian Industry Perspective on Alternatives to HCFCs for Air Conditioning Sub-sector P.K. Mahindra REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Indian Industry Perspective on Alternatives to HCFCs for Air Conditioning Sub-sector P.K. Mahindra REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Indian Industry Perspective on Alternatives to HCFCs for Air Conditioning Sub-sector P.K. Mahindra REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (RAMA) 18 February 2011, New Delhi INDO-US WORKSHOP ON HYDROFLUOROCARBONS (HFCs)

2 2 AIMS & OBJECTIVES: T o Promote overall growth of Air-conditioning & Refrigeration Industry in India, keeping in mind the larger economic goals of: Maximizing investments in India Maximizing job creation in India To conduct & facilitate research on Air Conditioning & Refrigeration industry To partner with Indian & Foreign Associations for Growth of the Industry REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (RAMA) Indo-US Workshop on HFCs-18 th Feb.2011

3 3 Air Conditioning & US$ (billion) Commercial Refrigeration: Air Conditioning Systems3.2 Commercial Refrigeration0.5 Servicing 0.3 TOTAL 4.0 Domestic Refrigerators: 2.1 Total 6.1 RAMA members account for over 90% of the industry size for Air Conditioning & Commercial Refrigeration and over 70% of domestic refrigerator market. INDUSTRY SIZE Indo-US Workshop on HFCs-18 th Feb.2011

4 4 1. Room air conditioners 2. Ducted Systems 3. Chilled water systems (air & water cooled) AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SUB SECTORS 4. VRF air conditioning systems 5. Precision & Telecommunication 6. Rail Coach Air Conditioning Indo-US Workshop on HFCs-18 th Feb.2011

5 5 AIR CONDITIONERS SUB SECTORS GROWTH STORY Indo-US Workshop on HFCs-18 th Feb.2011

6 6 ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS GROWTH STORY Production: 2005 : 1.5 m (Actual) 2009 : 3.3 m (Actual) 2013 : 9.9 m (Estimate) 2015 : 17.0 m (Estimate) Demand Growth (Annual): 2005 ~ 09 : 22% (Actual) 2010 ~ 12: 32% (Estimate) 2013 ~ 15: 31% (Estimate) Penetration Level (p. capita) : 2005 : < 2 (Actual) 2013 : 3. 5 (Estimate) 2015 : 4.5 (Estimate) Indo-US Workshop on HFCs-18 th Feb.2011

7 7 ALTERNATE REFRIGERANTS CHARACTERISTICS PARAMETERR 22R-410AR-407C R 134AR 32R 290 Safety Category as per ASHRAE A1 A2LA3 Flammable Limits in Air (vol.%) None 14.42.1 GWP18102,0881,7741,4306753 Glide o F0 0.29.700 0 Compressor Energy Effic. Ratio (HCFC 22 %) 100%102 – 105%95 – 101%95 – 97% Yet to be establish ed 97 – 99% Capacity (HCFC 22 %)100%149 – 155%98 – 105%65%160% 85% Heat TransferBaseline HigherLower Higher Same Pressure DropBaseline LowerSameHigherLower Tubing SizeBaseline SmallerSameLargerLower Same System Performance (HCFC 22 %) 100%98 – 105%95 – 100%97 – 98%95 – 97% 100- 103% Redesign RequiredBaseline MajorMinorMajor Indo-US Workshop on HFCs-18 th Feb.2011

8 8 EVALUATION OF REFRIGERANTS R- 410A ADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES R-410 is a blend with a small temperature glide (0.2C) System Efficiency is lower than that of HCFC-22 Smaller compressor and heat exchanger due to lower flow rate Higher sub cooling (8%) Increased manufacturing cost Lower critical temperature of R-410A limits its use in higher ambient System efficiency 98 ~ 105%; improvement by better design Higher thickness and smaller internal size of tubes due to higher system pressures Higher vacuum levels during manufacturing, servicing Full system evacuation, gas charging required during servicing Sub sectors : Room Air conditioner, Ducted systems, small Chiller Systems Indo-US Workshop on HFCs-18 th Feb.2011

9 9 ADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES Single Component refrigerant ; does not have disadvantages of mixtures Higher coefficient of performance as compared to R 410A and CO2 System size is bulky compared to HCFC-22 based systems due to 40% lower refrigeration capacity Consumes more materials increased system costs GWP concerns EVALUATION OF REFRIGERANTS HFC-134a Sub sector : Large chiller systems Indo-US Workshop on HFCs-18 th Feb.2011

10 10 EVALUATION OF REFRIGERANTS PROPANE (R-290) ADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES Low climate impact (GWP:3) Good thermodynamic performance compared to HCFC-22, especially in lower ambient Comparable pressure and COP to HCFC-22 Improved pressure ratio LBP, discharge temperature, and volumetric capacity compared to HCFC-22 Serious Safety concerns in enclosed environments (flammability) ; permissible limit: 2.1% of air volume Large investments at production facilities for leak testing, charging, and general safety Major redesign of the air conditioning equipments Safety during servicing a major concern Pilot Project under evaluation; commercial Production and related issues to be resolved Indo-US Workshop on HFCs-18 th Feb.2011

11 11 VIABLE OPTIONS FOR AIR CONDITIONING SUB SECTORS Air conditioning Sub SectorApplicationViable Option Ductless Room Air Conditioners Home, small officesR -410A (HFC) Ducted System Institutions, Commercial R- 410A, R-407C (HFCs) Telecom Air Conditioner with Precision Air conditioner Information Technology back offices, Telecom equipment R- 410A (HFC) Chiller - Air CooledCentral Systems R -410A, HFC- 134a (HFCs) Chiller - Water CooledCentral SystemsHFC -134a (HFC) VRFs (Variable Refrigerant Volume) Institutions, Commercial R- 410A (HFC) Rail Coach Air ConditionerRailways, MetrosR- 410A (HFC) Others Marine & DefenceSpecial purposeR- 410A (HFC) Indo-US Workshop on HFCs-18 th Feb.2011

12 12 CONCLUDING REMARKS HFCs, like R-410A, HFC-32 and HFC-134a are the only Technically proven and Economically viable Alternatives to HCFC-22 for all the Air-Conditioning Applications R-290 being highly flammable may be applied for very small capacity units with lot of safety precautions: limited application There are no other technically proven and economically viable options Available for the industry. Some work is reported on low GWP HFOs and HFC mixtures. The time frame of such R & D work is unknown and may have a number of barriers: Flammability Issues Toxicity issue especially toxicity of products on dissociation Availability at comparable prices Indo-US Workshop on HFCs-18 th Feb.2011

13 13 CONCLUDING REMARKS (cont.) The phase-out of HCFCs relies only on the use of technically proven and economically viable solutions ; currently HFCs are the widely used refrigerants to replace HCFCs in most of the developed countries including USA. Air-Conditioning Sector is very price sensitive and Refrigeration and Air-conditioning (RAC) Industry is to provide cost effective solutions to cater the needs of Industrial and for GDP growth in the country. The RAC Industry cant afford frequent changeovers as it involves huge capital investment The RAC industry has a very challenging task ahead ; to cater the needs of growing demand and decision of capital investments Indo-US Workshop on HFCs-18 th Feb.2011

14 14 WAY FORWARD! The Indian industry look forward for interacting with the US RAC industry to deliberate about the feasible solutions especially to comply 2013 & 2015 control targets under the given of technically proven, economically viable, environmentally benign refrigerants. As the changeover requires large capital investments especially in growing markets like India, there is a need to have comprehensive studies and dialogues on technologies likely to be available in a given time horizon at affordable price. There should be mechanism to fund transition to low GWP refrigerants as and when these are viable Indo-US Workshop on HFCs-18 th Feb.2011

15 15 And the Journey continues for a Sustainable Growth Indo-US Workshop on HFCs-18 th Feb.2011


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