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HFCs: A Critical Link in Protecting Climate and the Ozone Layer Alternatives to high-GWP HFCs UNEP side-event, Montreal Protocol MoP-23, 21 November 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "HFCs: A Critical Link in Protecting Climate and the Ozone Layer Alternatives to high-GWP HFCs UNEP side-event, Montreal Protocol MoP-23, 21 November 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 HFCs: A Critical Link in Protecting Climate and the Ozone Layer Alternatives to high-GWP HFCs UNEP side-event, Montreal Protocol MoP-23, 21 November 2011

2 2 In last decade, reports by TEAP and government bodies have examined low-GWP alternatives

3 3

4 4 High-GWP HFC are used predominantly as ODS alternatives in refrigeration, air-conditioning, foam products, fire protection, aerosols, solvent applications In last decade, many reports by UNEP technical committees and government bodies* have identified methods to reduce climate influence of high-GWP HFCs 1. Best practices to reduce HFC emissions (containment) o Modifications in the design of products to reduce leakage and reduce quantity of HFC used in each unit. o Improvements in technical procedures and management to reduce HFC emissions during life-cycle, including capture and/or destruction of HFCs at end-of-life * For example, EC 2008; EPA 2006, 2010; FTOC 2011; GTZ 2008, 2009; IPCC-TEAP 2005; RTOC 2011; TEAP 1999, 2009, 2010; UBA 2011; UNEP 2010abc. Methods for reducing the climate influence of high-GWP HFCs have been identified - 1

5 5 Methods for reducing the climate influence of high-GWP HFCs have been identified - 2 2. Alternative technologies with zero or low GWPs fall into 3 categories: Alternative methods and processes (not-in-kind) Commercially used examples: fibre insulation, dry-powder asthma inhalers, architectural designs that avoid the need for air-conditioning. Non-HFC substances with low-GWPs Commercially used examples: hydrocarbons, ammonia, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, dimethyl ether, others. Low-GWP HFCs HFCs with lifetimes less than a few months (low GWPs) are being introduced, e.g. HFC-1234ze, 1234yf, 1336mzz.

6 6 Low-GWP alternatives and lifecycle carbon emissions Dr Ravishankaras presentation showed that alternatives with lifetimes <several months and low GWPs offer greatest potential to reduce HFC influence on climate To gain climate benefits of alternative systems, their total (direct and indirect) lifecycle carbon emissions need to be lower than lifecycle emissions of HFC systems they replace TEAP reported that specific low-GWP alternatives achieve equal or superior energy-efficiency compared to HFC systems in some sectors e.g. domestic refrigeration, commercial refrigeration, some air-conditioning systems: MAC, small AC units, small and large reciprocating chillers <7,000 kW, scroll chillers 10- 1600 KW, screw chillers 100-7000 kW

7 7 Low-GWP alternatives are used commercially Low-GWP alternatives exist for some applications, but are not suitable in other applications Further substantial R&D is needed to provide effective and affordable alternatives and relevant infrastructure Alternatives comprise very small % of market in some sectors e.g. refrigerated transport, air-conditioning in public buildings, spray foam But alternatives are significant % of global market in some sectors … Existing low-GWP alternatives could be expanded to additional companies and locations in the near term, if more companies and stakeholders took necessary steps

8 8 Low-GWP alternatives form a significant percentage of global market in some applications

9 9 Examples of alternatives used commercially in specific applications Refrigeration Ammonia (R-717), ammonia/carbon dioxide, ammonia/water absorption, hydrocarbons (R-290 propane, R-600a isobutane, R-1270 propene), carbon dioxide (R-744), water (R-718), adsorption/absorption, cryogenic systems using nitrogen or carbon dioxide, eutectic plates based on frozen salt solution Air-conditioning in buildings Ammonia, ammonia/dimethyl ether, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, water, water/lithium bromide adsorption, zeolite/water adsorption, dessicant and evaporative cooling, microchannel heat exchangers, architectural designs that avoid the need for air-conditioning systems

10 10 Examples of alternatives used commercially in specific applications Foam sector Liquid carbon dioxide, CO2/water, CO2/ethanol, CO2/hydrocarbons, isobutane, isopentane, cyclopentane, n-pentane, various pentane blands, dimethyl ether, methyl formate, formic acide, chlorinated hydrocarbons, vacuum technology, HFC-1234ze, mechanical processes, fibreglass, silicates, cellulose, wool, other fibrous insulation materials Solvent sector Aqueous systems, semi-aqueous mixtures, hydrocarbons, alcohols, solvent-free cleaning Fire protection Water, water mist, dry chemicals, foams, CO2, nitrogen, argon, fluoroketone, improved monitoring systems

11 11 Case study: Alternatives used in manufacture of domestic refrigerators and freezers Hydrocarbon technology is used in ~36% global fridge production; expected to reach ~75% by 2020 Energy-efficient HC fridges are manufactured in many countries e.g. Argentina, China, Denmark, France, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Russia, Swaziland, Turkey, Brazil Photos: HC fridges manufactured in China and Swaziland Photo credits: Greeenpeace, GIZ

12 12 Hydrocarbon technology adapted for small AC units Production started in China in 2011, mainly exported to Europe. Planned in India and other countries High energy-efficiency rating, sophisticated safety mechanisms 180,000 such units would prevent ~560,000 tonnes CO2eq direct lifecycle emissions. Photos: UNEP DTIE, GIZ Case study: Alternatives used in manufacture of small air-conditioning units

13 13 Case study: Supermarkets and food companies have pledged to use low-GWP alternatives >800,000 hydrocarbon ice-cream freezer cabinets installed by food company in Europe, Latin America, Asia >420,000 HC or CO 2 bottle vending machines installed by soft drinks companies in China, Europe, Latin America Supermarkets in Europe have installed ~2000 CO 2 systems, ~80 ammonia systems and ~70 hydrocarbon systems. A major supermarket chain uses alternatives in 80 stores (UK, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, USA), aims for 150 stores by 2012 Photo: CO 2 & ammonia supermarket refrigeration South Africa. Shecco, UBA

14 14 Case study: Developments in vehicle AC (MAC) MAC accounts for ~24% global GWP-weighted HFC consumption, large % emissions Car manufacturers have evaluated HFC-152a(GWP 133), CO 2 (GWP 1) and HFC-1234yf (GWP 4) TEAP anticipates that companies decisions likely to be based on GWP, energy-efficiency, regulatory approval, costs, reliability, safety, other factors US EPA plans to remove HFC-134a from SNAP list for new vehicles. National CO 2 emission-reduction targets for fleet vehicles will allow credits for HFC reductions EU MAC Directive prohibits refrigerant >150 GWP in new-type cars & light trucks approved from Jan 2011, all new vehicles from 2017

15 15 There are barriers to alternatives, but also many ways to overcome them Technical reports have identified barriers to further adoption of alternatives, such as: o Lack of suitable alternatives in specific sectors o Safety risks due to toxicity and flammability o Regulations and standards o Insufficient technical know-how in companies o Investment costs Existing commercial uses of alternatives demonstrated that barriers can be overcome, by activities such as: R&D, revised technical standards, training and technical assistance, development of infrastructure There is no one-size-fits all solution

16 16 Technical guidance on selecting alternatives and overcoming barriers

17 17 Going forward HFCs help to protect ozone layer, but increasing use will undermine the significant climate benefits achieved by ODS phase-out to date Substantial amount of information about alternatives has been evaluated in existing reports. Synthesis and update is desirable; identify and target gaps Further work needed to take advantage of alternatives, for example: o Updating estimates of climate influence of future HFC scenarios o Further analyse barriers, and how to overcome them o Further examine lifecycle impacts of options This and other work is likely to identify more sustainable options for protecting ozone and global climate

18 18 Summary There is no one-size-fits-all alternative Some low-GWP alternatives are used commercially in specific applications, different geographic regions Existing systems could be used more widely In some sectors there are no suitable low-GWP alternatives at present, but further alternatives are under development There are barriers to the adoption of alternatives But existing commercial uses of alternatives have demonstrated how barriers can be overcome Going forward: consolidating existing information, addressing key gaps and barriers

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