Production setup 20 years HC experience: –Greenfreeze – DKK Scharfenstein / Foron; –Initially mix of propane and butane (properties similar to CFC-12/HFC-134a); –Later – pure isobutane (R-600a); ATEX Directives (1994/99); ATEX guidelines and harmonized standards; A/C is different than domestic refrigeration ! 7
Service GIZ manuals and guidelines; Training mandatory; Proper service tools for HCs: –Needs careful consideration; e.g.: Venting hose; HC leak detector to monitor flammable atmosphere; HC purity: –While high purity is manageable in production setting, service technicians may choose lower purity. 9
Product Energy efficiency; Safe application: –Charge optimization: Example: Compressor accounts for 25% of total charge – re-design of compressor can reduce to 20% of total ! –Intelligent safety measures: Example: Shut-off of liquid line in case of leaks; –Risk assessment. 10
Opportunities China: –Progressive approach from Chinese government; –Two A/C production lines and one compressor line converted into R-290 prior to HPMP; –HPMP stage I will convert additional 18 A/C lines and 4 compressor lines converted into R-290; 12
Opportunities China (contd): –Substantial TA component: Charge reduction; Refrigerant distribution within A/C; Risk assessment in case of instant loss of refrigerant charge; A/C heat pump operation; Compressor optimization; –International competive bidding – soon !!! 13
Opportunities 14 HC candidates; Production setup; Servicing; Product; Market acceptability.
Cool solution ? YES HCs not an universal solution for A/Cs: –Short term: Smaller split A/Cs (up to 18,000 Btu/hr) and stand-alone units; –Long term: Window A/C and larger splits; 15
16 Thank you for your attention Contact Ole Reinholdt Nielsen Unit Chief, Refrigeration and Aerosols Unit United Nations Industrial Development Organization, UNIDO Montreal Protocol Branch P.O. Box 300, 1400 Vienna, Austria Tel: +43 1 26026 3036 (direct) Fax:+43 1 26026 6804 E-mail:O.Nielsen@unido.orgO.Nielsen@unido.org URL:www.unido.orgwww.unido.org